Coffee, Climate Change & Extinction: A conversation with Dr Aaron Davis at Kew

Coffee, Climate Change & Extinction: A conversation with Dr Aaron Davis at Kew



scientists are warning that more than half of the world's wild coffee species are at risk of extinction but scientists right here in the UK are ringing the alarm about climate change and how it could put your morning cup of coffee at risk climate change is going to negatively impact the quality of coffee in the future at the start of this year a paper was published titled high extinction risk for wild coffee species and implications of coffee sector sustainability it was picked up by a number of news outlets and they all covered it a little bit but I wanted to know more so I traveled down to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew to speak to the leader author dr. Aaron Davis I'd met Aaron previously at a symposium event we had given a fantastic talk and we'd stayed in touch since you might recognize him as the author of the coffee atlas of ethiopia the gardens our cue are open to the public and are fascinating and beautiful but I was excited that I could meet Aaron in the herbarium its cues collection of plant species over seven million samples collected from around the world and we sat in an alcove and discussed the paper and its implications and coffee in genetics and so much more for an hour or so here's that conversation which I hope you enjoy my name is Aaron Davis I am senior research leader here at the wrong time gardens kew I head up the plant resources team but I am a coffee specialist I suppose I'm a coffee biologist by training I am a botanist at what point in your career did you begin to specialize in coffee about 20 years ago I did a post doctoral study in Madagascar and part of the project was to investigate the wild coffees of Madagascar it was an opportunity it was purely by chance that I ended up working on coffee but within within a short period I became fascinated by the mother the organism you know there's early days I didn't really connect it with the beverage or or the industry or the sex I right right that came quite a bit later for me I think I met you six years ago I think and it was incredibly exciting for me to meet someone who who seemed outside of my industry you know we seem to have our fixed experts and then you appeared and knew so much about coffee in this whole other sense than than anyone else I've really spoken to more than just this one species that is my day-to-day life and most people's relationship with coffee Arabica right like you you opened my mind to the idea of the sheer volume of species that are out there which is what I want to talk about directly yeah so so most people watching this will probably know Arabica they're probably no robusta as its trade name so to speak they've maybe heard of something like like Baraka and that's three of 124 124 species and I had no idea that there were this many going back to where I started what fascinated me was here was he was a crop plant of global significance you know global the important commodity and we didn't know how many species there were or very much really about some of the wild species and that's what I did for for at least 10 years in fact in effect still doing today so the process is of just what we could describe in new species it has been going on for many centuries and essentially you're looking for plants that differ from other plants what are the differences we can't deal cataloging the diversity of the coffee genus so some of them were discovered in the sense that we were in the walking in the forest and we found them for the very first time others were found here in the herbarium that had been collected maybe a hundred years ago but had languished sort of undiscovered to scientists everything in terms of the other species out there I think you know if you if you've read your coffee history you might have come across new generators mmm the parent one of the two parents of Arabica and you might have come across I think you cos wrote about stena filler yes in a very positive way it was better he said but he got that idea from somebody else oh really you know it's been copied back through history so I think it's a French French scientist or a French coffee specialist who first said that said it was better than than Arabica or as good as Arabica I think that these sort of species are really the beginning of the wider story that your paper is telling right like the the paper you published at the start of this year can be difficult I would have a go myself but can you give a very brief summary of the paper I'll make sure it's linked below here so people can read it can I start again back back all those years ago when I first started yeah with coffee because one of the things that came became very paranoid quickly it was a lot of these species were correct and try to be rare and threatened in the wild and at that point not that we needed to start to gather the data to make up a genus wide a coffee wide assessment solo here we had the opportunity to actually do that properly through the IUCN Red List system so that's a very stringent system where you assess the threat status the extinction status of any plant or animal so we did that for coffee and what we found was that actually 60% of those 124 coffee species are threatened with extinction including Arabica but it gets a little bit worse than that because if you look at the material that's in seed collections living collections what we call germ has and collections it's not really probably conserved it's not enough species representation there's not enough representation of water populations including or keep every species why do we want to preserve them what what's that what I mean beyond just it's nice to have lots of species because it's nice to know some species what's that what's the bigger plan for those potential species in the future so that's one of the things we're really saying in the paper is that we need these species for the long-term sustainability of the sector now that might seem a bit fanciful a bit science fiction but in fact if you look back at the history of coffee cultivation that's exactly what we've done we've taken new species such as robusta and we've taken different plants from different populations with particular attributes that have helped the industry sustain production that's disease pest resistance climate tolerance etc etc we've called on those resources time and time again to sustain coffee production does climate change explain why we're interested in other species again when we hadn't been it seems for quite a long time you your paper references I think some works from the 20 years late 50s early 60s that shows interest in other species and there's this seeming gap where we're not particularly in oh I think I think the reason is a robusta or the main reason is here we are with this new plant came along really got going in early 20th century 1920's 1930's and there wasn't really much need to look at this other species it had everything we needed it had productivity it had other useful attributes it was easy to grow it was robust hence the name of Boston I mean what was the point in developing other species when we had this dropping of two species that were actually fulfilled our requirements may you in the paper you categorized that these species in two different ways firstly you by how endangered they are from critically through to the kind that the language you use at the other end of like not not particularly endangered at least concern leader concerns the correct place what percentage of species were critically endangered and what time frame are we talking about here is this they could go in the next 5-10 years is this in the next 30 years how how big is the window you know of action but in terms of coffee system sector sustainability there was a high number of critically endangered species in the group that would be the priority for looking at the development which was the other way you divided yes in the is it crop world wild relatives it's a funny phrase you crop wild relatives CWI's yeah so you divided those into three groups it was a kind of prioritization based on proximity to Arabica is that yes and robusta and robustly okay yeah proximity to commercial yeah agricultural coffee if you will yeah and how big was that the sort of priority group the priority group is actually quite large I'd say at least 35 40 species and where are those species are they predominantly Theo Pia or the Madagascar to know that so the Madagascar ones are in group 3 which is the lower priority group purely because the chemistry is so different to African representatives in the crop plants so I just want to go into you know let's say we preserve the species we present this material how a practical way that we begin to access that you know I've seen you know traditional plant crossing happen a lot in coffee I haven't seen much else am I wrong have I missed out or okay up until now I think the focus has been on breeding there are an hour range of gene editing techniques right you mentioned somatic fusion in the paper which I think has been successful for the potatoes there's a suite of technologies and those technologies are developing very very rapidly yeah and you talk to people who plant read in other plant groups there's they're saying to people I mean why aren't you using those techniques sure and I think a problem comes down to the public perception of GMO what do you think things like yeah I feel like CRISPR for example mmm there's had a ton of positive press up this world and CRISPR does have applications for crop plants it's been used to think in rice though a lot of the work as far as I can tell has been more hypothetical than it's been practical but does something like CRISPR have applications in coffee on same way absolutely where the difficulty is in the u.s. CRISPR doesn't come under GMO whereas in Europe CRISPR comes under jetty modification although if you're scientists you would argue that that's not actually the case but I think something like CRISPR could have real potential particularly particularly disease resistance right I like to think we're really if we if we're really interested in sustainability and we're trying to tackle the Mets and the major diseases like coffee leaf rust I think we have to look at those technologies so do you think there's a there's an option we're very simply we go back and look at the agricultural viability of some of these sort of priority one pretty close to Arabica Robusto kind of species where we think what if we start planting these what if we start growing these do they taste good is that is that a answer yes that's the work we started okay so what we're did in group one which is the main crop species and their parents which in use lab Erica robusta and then as priority group to which are species that have potential to breed with those species or to break amongst themselves to make new crops our species in our own crop species in their own right or indeed have been used before so Liberec is a really good example I think the barrack hazard model promise it does need work at this development but look it's been interesting because I'm almost going full circle now back looking at wild species and I think the thing that really excites me is that you know this is this is a fanciful assistant science fiction I really do think there's potential there we just need the investment and I'm particularly excited because what I see is the potential to really do something in terms of climatic tolerance so I want to dig into climatic tolerance a little bit more broadly speaking Arabica likes altitude not because about food but because of lots of sunlight and then a large swing diurnal temperatures right it's a warm warm warm in the day cold cold cold at night and that means that you have used to essentially slow the biology of the plant quite a lot at night you end up with a denser seed and a better tasting product it's about that fast and slow period feed feed feed and then slowly we'll call the cool tropics right when we talk about climate tolerance you know the ability to withstand hotter nights and the hotter days is to some extent what we're talking about as well as I suspect less access to water I think there's been a lot of focus on temperatures mm-hmm but in many parts of the world it's water it's the availability of waters it's waning it's in terms of when it's in it when it's in the ground collapses in the ground so it's a it's really that that balance between water and temperature that's important but temperature is going to happen like continue we're gonna see that half full degrees Celsius rise and if you look at the climate change models they're pretty much all in agreement that we're gonna see an increase in temperature always we're seeing an increase in temperature where is this little bit of heat going to punish Arabica as it is right now you can't pinpoint the effect of temperature so any period or or any process it because of this relationship with water and with seasonality so for example you can withstand 28 degrees if the waters are sorry if the soil is full of water if is that fill capacity we say so it's nicely evenly saturated mm-hmm but if there's no water in soil or little water in soil 25 degrees could be lethal 28 degrees could be lethal as we go looking for solutions in other species one what characteristics we were looking for then are they is it that they are able to thrive with less water is that is it some set of drought resistance or just a lower daily requirement so to speak we have a hundred 24 coffee species and there they have evolved into different habitats they are adapted so what we're looking for is plants that have specific climatic torrents attributes so that might be a shorter wet season along with dry season so there are plants that are adaptive those sorts of conditions or it might be we have a plant that's adapted to very wet conditions very humid conditions and that plant might have disease tolerance to fungal pathogens for example it's a matter of taking that those genetic resources and the attributes to breed be very prescriptive about the plants that we want so it might be we're breeding something for East Africa that's completely different to the requirements of Central America my concern as I listen to you talk is that you know this this feels like a strategy for plant survival but this is an agricultural plant way yield becomes a huge consideration and if you have a plant with limited access to what it does some extent yeah can you even can you cheat your environment to the extent you can have a high yielding plant that does well with limited rainfall or reduced you know it's not just about climatic tolerance it's also about all the other attributes that are required for a problem productivity taste market value peace of cultivation a willingness of farmers to actually grow the crop in the first place right so it's not it's not easy by any means but as I say I think I think it become increasingly more optimistic about the use of wild species because I'm seeing the potential to meet the requirements for for some it was some part of the coffee growing community I want to sort of push into the towards the conclusions of the paper and and we accept that coffee is threatened we accept we need to keep as many of these species alive and and healthy as possible and and you you point out there's a couple of ways of doing that and broadly they're divided into Institue and exit sugars right like so in the fields as they would grow in their natural habitats would be institute you would protect them through national parks or other protected forests as them as their own that's right yeah exits you would be cryopreservation yes as one option yeah it would be something like variety gardens or with that yeah so living collection listen collection it could be in vitro sloka locator which explains that while so you you basically growing the plant that's slowing its growth in Philly yeah yeah so you can preserve lots of different species or varieties in a very small space and and you you point out living collections can be problematic right because you can't prevent some level of crossing happening naturally is person problem you would envisage mmm-hmm because it's an open pollination environment right and indeed when you look at the genetic data for some of those collections you can see they've been compromised species had inter crossed and what happens is a lot of those collections have reproduced by seed so the seed has gathered right on the trees planted but they've got no way of ensuring that that wasn't produced by a hybrid pops used by a crossing event and we see that we see lines of coffee planted that was meant to be species X whereas in fact combinational other species so if if money were no object in had limitless resources what's the best way to preserve all of these species is it cryopreservation is that the gold standard is it living collections but just really well-maintained ones is it actually Institute what you have to remember is if if you're taking you're preserving something makes it to the amount of genetic diversity you can catch your situation credibly limited I mean you know we calculated that there were thirteen and a half billion genotypes in Ethiopia now you're not going to capture that diversity hey execute collection and that's an extreme example but it's always going to be a compromise right and that's why we do genomics to find out that the variability so we're capturing as much variability as possible ultimately what you need to do is to preserve things in situ in the wild because they're also under selective continuing selective pressure they're adapting to the environment so you want you want that you and you want that standing variation but that's no good if you're a coffee breeder or producer you want material that you can access to use so we do need those living collections we need those exits your collections to cryopreservation sample them you know bridges acceptor can use can access easily quickly to develop plants historically obviously Ethiopia's a key part of the world woman what is all of this as I understood it the Ethiopian government was not super interested in in sharing only a lot of that genetic wealth I guess is that is that fair is that still the case I think it's that's still a case why is that why they're sort of a like I think because if you look back a recent history I'm not talking hundreds of years ago I'm talking the last 40 or 50 years material has been taken out of Ethiopia and developed and commercially successful of Ethiopians would argue you know what what we benefit' benefited from that and the answer is absolutely nothing okay she's a good example many producers making you know their livelihoods out of geisha or developing geisha but none of that IP is flowing back into the okay so it's a it's quite a recent example and a good one because guys just spreading throughout the world as far as I can see does climate change not make keeping insecure collections harder and harder still in some places that might be the case if you have access to irrigation and can I move to those issues and I guess the last the last impossible question well that you know the difficult question is that I read the paper and I understand the problem and I understand that the urgency and I understand some of the solutions and if you're watching this you made me feel the same way like okay I get it all right this this freaks me out what can I do where's the practical part of this where I as an individual be it someone who just drinks coffee or someone in the coffee industry how do I help it's a tricky one because there's so many other things to do that's the problem I think it's like it's not this is one of several problems you know with producers of facing either profitability crisis unless we do something about that pretty quickly lots of producers are gonna start giving up producing coffee you know there are so what are we doing about Yemen you know the crisis in use if it's all interconnected there's just so many different urgent requirements that's difficult to achieve so right I'm gonna support a B or C I think it needs serious funding of course we're talking in a multi multi-million pound projects should it be something like at a global scale since it's a UN or well bank or something large that has the funding to make a real difference you know and maybe it's about us about better organization you know I actually feel the coffee research community is quite disparate and quite fragmented for a number of reasons I think that needs to be resolved I'm gonna push you one more time yeah no no no but I mean like oh yeah I'm watching this mm-hm I'm concerned what is my action what is my practical help is it donate money to Q is it donate my idea copy research is it you know put pressure wherever I can on organizations to fund something like this is it you know going out and harassing the Gates Foundation into dropping a cheque is it you know how you know the the great problem with so much of climate change is that most sensible people accept it the question of what do I do yeah is not well answered take less flights okay like do I do I buy less plastic does that make a difference but I fly one more time of year did I just break all my good work like what do you what do you want from me people I think we wanted to participate and they went to move in the right direction and I think we're all looking for a house you know I mean like how how does this happen and in this case that's the question I come back to which is I I wanted to see this happen I want to see the recommendations you make come to fruition am i powerless that may be the key right sorry these are these are big societal issues of course but they're all certainly interconnected we need a carbon tax yeah absolutely certainly we need a car attacks across a full spectrum of human utilities I'll go to say stop taking fossil fuels out of the ground that's absolutely certain yeah we have to consume less we have to produce food waste all those big things we have we have to seriously address with powerful legislation you and human will but I still think you know looking at coffee production we need to take a hard look at what we're doing and I think you know we we've failed I think with certification largely by a knowledge we vote yes it has achieved some good some farmers clearly benefit others don't but we still don't know precisely we don't even know we only one got a clue I'd say of the environment environmental impact of our coffee purchasing and that is absolutely clear you know with what's what's the carbon footprint has the coffee I just purchased resulted into it deforestation the answer is probably yes in many circumstances so I think we really need to take a good hard look at certification in terms of the impact in the environment because it that relates back to losing species my reason we're losing species is deforestation climate change so you know we we have to think holistically but we do need to think about the way the coffee that we're purchasing you'd be really honest about and also I would say not just think a bit in terms of how the degree of damage but the degree of good you know if you're buying for example Ethiopian coffee you're buying coffee that's associated with forests yes that forest isn't as diverse as would be without coffee but if it wasn't for coffee production there wouldn't be a forest there right so we have to sort of start looking at those complexities to understand some understand some of our purchasing and to say look really look at certification see and understand exactly what it means you

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39 thoughts on “Coffee, Climate Change & Extinction: A conversation with Dr Aaron Davis at Kew

  1. You're a truly important figure in the coffee world because of things like this, James. Thank you and Dr. Davis for this informative content

  2. Climate change will change more then coffee,put your seatbelt on ladies and gentlemen here we go EARTHQUAKE,TORNADOES,WARS,FAMINES,FLOODS,DYING OF ANIMALS ,ECONOMIC CRISES,WATERS WARS,SO ON AND SO ON.Are only hope is Jesus ,God so love the world that he gave his only son so who ever believe in him will be saved,believe in your heart and confess with your mouth that Jesus Christ is lord and you will be saved.Go read the Bible ,John chapter three,Romans chapter ten turn to God before it’s to late

  3. This video was posted on the CRISPR Facebook Forum: Articles, Papers, Video, Podcasts, Discussion – 5,333 Members: https://www.facebook.com/groups/crisper/

  4. thank you Aaron & James, an really enjoyable conversation about an important topic that often becomes dry and usually leaves me feeling impotent

  5. To leftists who live within 5 miles of water or weather, your house/condo/coffee plantation will be under water within 2 years. Sign your deeds over to me and I will dispose of the worthless real estate on your behalf.

  6. I'm a self-confessed plant lover. I grew up helping my OG to grow all sorts of fruit and veg in the back garden and of course eating them. Always found everything about plants really fascinating. Selfishly, I ask thee: more vids like this please!

  7. Hey James. I've been subscribed for about a month now. I would love to support your patreon at the "pour-over level" but it says that option is sold out! Are you adding any room to that tier or should I just support the one right before it?

  8. I've just finished reading Where the Wild Coffee Grows by Jeff Koehler. It touches on many of the points Davis talks about here – his studies are regularly quoted – but also the wider picture about coffee science and history and how/why we are where we are. A third of the book is devoted to the impact of climate change and the scientists hard at work. It's an enjoyable read as well as an important one.

  9. I remember when climate scientists said NYC would be under water in 2015. That was incredible insight, and…oh wait, never mind.

  10. The biggest threat we face is not climate but the demise of  modern Western cultural values of freedom and self determination that allow individuals to structure their “pursuit of happiness” as they see fit. Business and political leaders today weakly defend these values, if at all, and resist any efforts to require newcomers to respect and abide by them.  
    In an extreme example, Canada’s Trudeau now says that his country has no “core identity”  defined by its history or European origins of its people, but reflects a “pan-cultural heritage” with no core or mainstream identity.  Nature abhors a vacuum, so a mainstream will develop, but history says that individual freedom will likely not be one of its attributes.

  11. The greenhouse effect is real, but you need a solid transparent barrier to make it work. In actual greenhouses a glass or plastic wall blocks convective heat exchange with the surrounding environment, thus insulating the air inside the greenhouse. Earth's atmosphere has no walls, so convective cooling acts as an escalator transferring heat from the surface of the Earth all the way up to the stratosphere. The theorized insulating effect of gases in our atmosphere was first proposed in the 19th Century as a conjecture without any observational evidence. This theory later became "settled science" through repetition by many generations of scientists quoting their mentors and peers.

    Two scientists, Dr. Karl Zeller and Dr. Ned Nikolov, have found they can accurately predict the long term average surface temperatures of any rocky surfaced planet or moon in our solar system by knowing just two strategic facts: their distance from the Sun and their atmospheric pressure. This formula has worked correctly for Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and Pluto, and for Earth’s moon, Europa, Callisto, Titan, and Triton. This revolutionary finding means that the specific molecular structure of atmospheric gases is irrelevant to heat, and there is no insulating atmospheric greenhouse gas effect.

    Carbon dioxide is an odorless, colorless, nontoxic gas, and the molecular fuel that powers and constructs all life on Earth. CO2 is not a pollutant any more than oxygen is a pollutant. Carbon dioxide in our atmosphere is like money in the bank; it feeds all plant and animal life on Earth. The CO2 humans have added to our atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution has made our trees and crops grow faster, bigger, and more resistant to drought. NASA satellite data confirms there has been an increase in leaf growth on plants and trees measured over a 35-year period that is equivalent to an area of vegetation two times greater than the entire continental United States.

    There is nothing unusual or wrong with Earth’s current average temperatures, which are constantly going up and down because our weather is constantly being affected by an almost infinite number of natural variables. The urban legend of dangerous man-made global warming has gotten out of hand, and has become a new age religion and a political weapon. We need to sober up, get our heads straight, and understand that nature controls our climate, not politicians in Washington DC.

    Please see New Climate Discovery at http://renewable.50webs.com/Zeller.Nikolov.html

  12. You do a really good job of asking the layman's questions on the science side, making Aaron's work very accessible. Really interesting video, thanks.

  13. The only thing you can do is drink good coffee. That's it, really.
    And this solution is the ultimate solution for every kind of product we consume. We need to consume less, and better. The big problem with "coffee production" is that it's big. Can you only imagine how many tons and tons of coffee are produced for Nespresso? for Starbucks? This is the problem. The problem is taste. You really can't solve any problem if you have all those people drinking shit every day. It's impossible.
    So what we can do is to fight for good. I mean, it's easy in our society to just take refuge behind "everyone should do what he wants", it's the classic easy answer to prevent debate, to prevent defending your ideas. "You can drink whatever you like, I like crazy good stuff, but you can have your Nespresso if you want". The ultimate freedom we cherish so much, to consume what we want the way we want. And that's now the big issue. No it's not fine to just "drink what you want", it really is not. Drinking crap is not what you should do, even for the sacrosanct idea of freedom, because at the end of the day that's exactly where the issue is coming from.

    So, drink good coffee, and tell people they should do the same.

  14. A really good video, but skipping one of the most influential changes needed to stop climate change. The easiest change that makes the most impact on the environment is adopting a plant based diet, like it or not. I'm kind of disappointed that they didn't touch on that point.

  15. Big fear makes big news.
    Maybe we will need better irrigation, maybe CRISPR coffee would become a thing (and if it tastes better than Arabica, it will be popular). Maybe Ethiopians will be farming something else, while the same crops move to other countries where the climate becomes just right.

    We've been a few decades from the end of the world for several decades now, and we'll probably still be for centuries to come.

  16. This is fascinating. Great job on the editing, it is almost like a mini documentary to be honest. I enjoyed every second of it. Thanks a lot and keep videos like these coming 👌😍!

  17. This is great James! Thank you so much for this info! we definitely need more content about this topic

  18. I came to this channel for coffee knowledge, but now I have to unsubscribe because it is another promoter of bullshit propaganda. I guess you can't blame anyone for buying it – but look into a signal more deeply before proliferating it. NASA just measured surplus ice in Antarctica. There's no scientific consensus. And if there was, it wouldn't mean anything. There was a scientific consensus to bloodlet and use Mercury to treat illnesses…

  19. The same things are happening to bananas, cacao, and even corn — the seed companies rely on the wild proto-corn species from Mexico to maintain genetic diversity in the face of their monoculture approach. Those areas are increasingly stressed by shifting rainfall and depleted soil.

  20. Hey James, I've been watching you for years and love your stuff. I've noticed that you talk relatively quietly (which is perfectly fine of course, I do the same) but I think sometimes the levels of your VO can be well below those of other clips in your videos. I find that often after the intro I have to kick up the volume a few notches and then skip back 5 seconds to catch what you're saying. Boosting the level of your recordings a bit might help. A minor inconvenience of course but this feels like one of those things where, if it were me, I'd want someone to just mention it. Excited to watch the rest of this video!

  21. Just need to create a World Sustainable Coffee Association ala SCAA. Mix of producing nations and researchers could operate a cartel like opec but with sustainability as key driver. Would lead to more coordinated production and better returns for producers.

  22. That was one of the best (if not the best) video I have ever seen in this channel. Great interview! I even loved how the scientist; Dr. Aaron Davis, was not always providing the straight answers the business man;James Hoffmann, was searching for. It all felt natural and honest.

    One observation I would like to share with the rest of the viewers: Is it me or (by the end of the interview) Dr Aaron Davis was kind of suggesting that coffee consumption could be a massive contributor to climate change? I am firm supporter of sustainability measures, but this one reflexion made me feel extremely uneasy. Would I give up my fours cups of coffee a day, because I may be harming the planet with it? hah!

    Did you also interpret it the same way? What would you do?

  23. Fascinating video James! Definitely would love to see more interview videos like this if possible 🙂

  24. Thanks for sharing this, James looks so excited to talk about these questions, it helped to open up my worldview on coffee from just appreciating arabica and knowing it's basics to wanting to learn more about coffea and it's thing.

  25. Thank you James for an excellent discussion on where we are and what we need to concentrate on for the future of coffee production. A very informative insight into the tactics needed to ensure the survival and indeed continued support of the industry. Much to think about. We have some time, but the clock is ticking. Of course this applies to all agriculture.

  26. Incredibly informative video! I will certainly take the conclusion into account come my next coffee bean purchase, even as an individual consumer. Everything counts!

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