Ecology Lesson Part 1

Ecology Lesson Part 1



okay so tonight we're going to be talking about the study of ecology and the study of ecology is the study of relationships in biology so let's go ahead and get started you should have your guys at notes out with you so go ahead and pull them out and let's look at the first slide okay so what is ecology actually ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment focusing on the trend on energy transfer so we're looking at exactly what is being transferred so does a consumer eat the producer and how much energy is transferred from the producer so the producer is going to get all the energy from the Sun but only 10% of that energy is going to transfer to the primary consumer and only ten fold of that energy is going to transfer to the secondary consumer so ecology is a science of relationships alright so what do we mean by the environment the environment is made up of two factors biotic factors bio meaning living so biotic factors are all the living organisms and habited the earth and abiotic biome eating living but a meaning not so abiotic would be all the nonliving parts of the environment temperature soil light moisture air kurz now just think what else is there within the environment that is not living there's probably something that you can come up with okay so this is how we measure the environment so first we have an organism think of maybe a bear and then we have a population so a bunch of bears together and then that population lives within a community so their lives in the forest and there's birds and there's insects and there are rabbits and there are trees and there are many organisms that live in that community with so then we move up to ecosystem and within an ecosystem there are many communities so there might be forests in plains and other types of communities within one ecosystem and then we move up to a biosphere so the biosphere is the entire Earth so we go down or we can go up so it is an organism well an organism is any unicellular or multicellular form exhibiting all of the characteristics of life an end or an individual it's the lowest level organize this organization in ecology so you aren't an organism I am an organism officious an organism a banana is an organism anything is an organism anything living that is so what is a population a population like I said earlier it's a group of organisms a group of organisms that are at the same species though so we can't have a a monkey and a starfish and a bee that's not going to be a population population is going to be like a group of humans or a group of starfish or a school of fish so a population is a group of organisms one species living in the same place at the same time that interbreed produce they produce fertile offspring this is very important because if you think of a meal that they do not produce fertile offspring so when a horse and a donkey produce a mule when you try to mate two yells together they will not produce they will not reproduce so this is not a population they compete with each other for resources remember our resources are food mate shelter and water now our community are several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment and are interdependent so we have a biotic and biotic factors within this community and we have several different populations we have populations insects with populations of bacteria we have high-level consumers like our Hawks and we have low-level consumers like reptiles and rodents are herbivores okay then we move into the level of an ecosystem an ecosystem our populations in a community and the abiotic factors with which they interact so we have to rest here in terrestrial and we have marine ok and finally we have the biosphere the life supporting portions of Earth composed of air land freshwater and saltwater the highest level organization within our planet so now we move on to habitats and niche so we talked about this in our project a niche is the role of species plays within the community it's a total way of life without a niche we do not know exactly what the species does so the habitat is the place in which an organism lives out its life so the niche is the role the habitat is where it lives okay so I'll have a tat or snitch again a habitat is determined by the taller tolerance limitations of an organism or a limiting factor there are many limiting factors but a limiting factor is specifically any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence of an organism in specific environment so let's think about this the limiting factor can be the amount of males versus females so mates it can be food it can be shelter it can be a lot of different things but let's take a specific look so an example of a limiting factor it's going to be your amount of water food temperature so if the temperature gets too cold or too hot the amount of space so remember you've probably learned about carrying capacity and the availability of mates there are three main types of are feeding relationships and I'm sure you've heard of some of them producer and consumer so we have our plants which produce all of our sugars and they are consumed by herbivores our herbivores then are consumed by our predator-prey relationships usually and our predator-prey relationships are then again consumed by a secondary or tertiary consumer then we have a parasite and host the parasite and host is where the parasite benefits and the host is harmed so you might think of like a termite and a tree you might think of a leech and whatever it is attached to so there are a couple of examples but you could use for this type of relationships so feeding relationships producers all autotrophs are plants they trap their energy from the Sun and remember we do this by photosynthesis think about what the equation is for photosynthesis you will need these for your OG teas but they're the bottom of our food chain they're always the bottom of the food chain and Sun the Sun is not included in our food – even though it provides the energy for our producers ok our consumers all are heterotrophs they're ingesting food they ingest food containing the sun's energy we have herbivores carnivores omnivores and decomposers remember our decomposers are not ingesting heterotrophs they digest their food outside of their body and then they ingest what what they have digests it outside of their body they absorb all of the good nutrients so our consumer so we have primary consumers which eat slowly plants and then we have secondary and tertiary consumers which they prey on animals and they're usually carnivores but they can be omnivores as well okay so our consumers carnivores remember they are our meat-eaters they are predators which they hunt their prey and animals for food we have consumers which are carnivores as well and eat meat but we also have scavengers and they feed on carrion and dead animals so your vultures would be a good example of this okay there we have our omnivores which eat both both plants and animals okay and remember we just talked about decomposers our fungi are a good example of our decomposers they break down the complex compounds of dead decaying plants and animals into simpler molecules now remember when we talked about fungi what did we say that fungi grow good'n do you remember well they grow good in manure so think about what that is okay symbiotic relationships symbiosis is two species and living together we have three types of symbiosis we have commensalism parasitism and mutualism i'll say that one more time in case you did not get that we have three types of symbiosis we have commensalism parasitism and mutualism okay so commensalism is one species benefiting the other and the other is neither harmed nor helped so this is like an orchid on a tree and orchid actually grows on a tree and it doesn't hurt the tree but the tree isn't helped either it just is kind of there so commensalism is one species benefit and the other is neither harmed nor hurt and another example of this would be polar bears and cyanobacteria so polar bears they have cyanobacteria that grows on their backs but it doesn't harm nor um help them and then parasitism one species benefits which is the parasite and the other it is harmed which is the host usually we think of this in terms of like with lampreys and leeches fleas and ticks you'll probably you probably look for through your dog's hair for fleas and ticks and heartworms would be another one mutualism is beneficial to both species and an example of this would be cleaning birds and the cleaner shrimp they both benefit another example of mutualism is a lichen and I like in there are two species actually living together it's gonna be a cyanobacteria and a plant like material and they benefit each other and they live on they live on trees and tree bark if you look at tree bark you will see a lot of lichen and here is an example here's a couple of examples of lichen you can also see them on rocks but it's more common to find them on plant materials now here is a table that helps you to see whether or not species are being harmed their species are being benefited as you can see mutualism is the best type of type because both species are benefited in parasitism it's probably the one that is the worst because one of the species is harmed and only one is benefited and commensalism one species benefits but one is neutral so if I had my picked I would probably say I would want mutualism but if if I couldn't pick that then I would pick commensalism so move on to trophic levels in each level of the food chain is a trophic level so as you move up you move up a trophic level so each link in the food chain we call a trophic level trophic levels represent a feeding step and the transfer of energy and manner and ecosystem so biomass the amount of organic matter comprising the group of organisms in a habitat is known as biomass as you move up the food chain both available energy and biomass decrease so by tenfold like I said earlier we're decreasing this so you have a hundred percent energy at the producer level so the plants have a percent of energy from the Sun and we actually all get our energy from the Sun because we're all taking that energy but as we transfer it we get less and less percentage of that energy from the Sun so by the time we eat a piece of meat we're actually only probably getting one person and the energy from the Sun and that's because we're decreasing it tenfold so energy is transferred upward but it's also diminished each time with each transfer so if we look at this producers or autotrophs have the most energy and then primary consumers or herbivores have have a little bit less but they don't they still have a pretty good amount and then secondary consumers or small carnivores have a good amount and then tertiary have the least so if we look at this like I was saying before our 10 fold we decreases so we have a hundred percent at our producers our first consumer then only gets ten percent of that energy from the producer so that's the amount of energy they're actually getting from the Sun and then our second consumer only gets 1% from the Sun so we're decreasing that by a big amount so if we look here we're we're just looking at a energy food web so the food requirement of the tertiary consumer is going to be a lot more because we're decreasing 10 fold then we're going to need for the primary or the secondary consumer okay so with the trophic levels if we look at a food chain now notice this is a food chain and not a food web so it goes in a straight line a food web looks solely like a web now the food chain is a simple model that shows how matter and energy moved through an ecosystem so we're looking at a food chain that starts in either the ocean or a river and it goes up through the land because we're using we're starting with algae and we're going through fish to raccoons now look at this one we're gonna start with grass and that is going to be our producer so we know it's all on land

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