English - Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability

English – Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability

climate change is a challenge of managing risks risks for people and infrastructure risks for ecosystems risks for fresh water resources and food production steps to build resilient societies can reduce these risks adapting to climate change can benefit communities economies and the environment the role of working group – of the intergovernmental panel on climate change is to assess what's known and what's not known in the scientific body of literature about impacts of climate change what are the physical changes that have occurred and will occur in the future what's the vulnerability who's susceptible to harm and why an adaptation what can be done to cope as effectively as possible with the climate changes that can't be avoided a vido significative owes advances Repetto anteriors evalua Sione's en el grupo dos in particular hace la la forma de enfocar todo el proceso de de terry a ho s relatio na dou con el cambio climatic o y del L Bonet hold real substantial am wide-ranging impacts of climate change have occurred across the world climate change is already affecting ecosystems human health freshwater resources and agriculture over the past few decades yields of major agricultural crops have not increased as much as they would have without climate change climate change poses risks for food security in the future ongoing warming and acidification of coastal waters have impacts on marine ecosystems climate change has affected both the land and ocean species we find the species are changing moving places migrating and in the case of on trees you find a higher rate of mortality the main message from all of these observed impacts is that many features of eco systems in the economy are very sensitive to changes in climate and when we look forward to the possibility of changes in climate that are much larger than the ones we've already seen the risk of much greater impacts is also very quick the impacts of extreme climate events tell us a lot about current vulnerability and exposure of ecosystems and societies what they're observing is a significant adaptation deficit in both developing and developed countries society at large is actually more vulnerable and more exposed to climatic extremes even in the current climate than one might expect and that tells us something about this the challenge of moving forward into a changing climate will be have yet to catch up with where we're at now poverty can intensify the impacts from climate change living at the margin of society and being highly exposed like living in the floodplain or being homeless makes people vulnerable to climate change not the floods or droughts or heat stress per se so it's about these inequalities that exist in every society both in the north end itself that make people vulnerable and often they are associated to gender to age well-being health class race ethnicity and whether or not people have access to resources and a stake in decision-making processes risks from climate change really emerge from the overlap between three very different kinds of factors one factor is hazard how much does the climate change what is the extreme events the second is exposure what kinds of assets are at risk property investments of economic values and the third is vulnerability what's the sensitivity to harm the potential to be harm for people and ecosystems and if they're going to be damages from climate change risk they really emerge from the overlap between these three the overlap between the climate hazard the exposure and the vulnerability that's what produces climate related risk risk we prepared for the challenges we face now are we prepared to deal with the challenges in the future might each of you to think about not only climate change but also changes in governments in finance in national security it's important to consider regional and local settings to understand the risks associated with climate change you know when you look at the the risk aspect of of climate change it almost seems that climate change is the only thing that brings risk but if you work and live in an African city our day-to-day existence is is about risks so what climate change brings is another layer of risk and the question is how do we look at this new risk in relation to existing risks risk is condition for example by people's worldview what level of damage or loss that a community or a nation or will is willing to accept and risk is also important from the point of view of the choices that you make so a key aspect of climate risk management is making choices under conditions of uncertainty future greenhouse gas emissions and land use change will determine the magnitude of future climate change risks for people societies economies and the environment increase with further warming mitigation can reduce risks adaptation to climate change is also important for reducing risks one of them's key messages from working group two is that adaptation and mitigation are complementary activities one of the real challenges we face is establish the understanding that the benefits of adaptation and the benefits of mitigation play out on different time scales or the effects of adaptation can be more near-term and immediate but mitigation actions implemented early can make it easier to adapt more effectively in the long term investments in mitigation in the short term really lead to an era of climate options in the long term adaptation to climate change is starting to occur flood barriers and improved drainage reduce the risks from flooding in large cities farmers are managing their lands differently for example changing their planting times or using different varieties new climate smart buildings make cities more resilient green roofs decrease the risk of flooding during heavy rainfall and keep buildings naturally cooler during heat waves so what we have here is a new technology that's being implemented it's effective and is attractive and I agree I think the real challenge is this is an experiment in a resource-rich environment so the question is how do we find similar leases and we can scale up in places in the global south the global South already dealing with so many challenges they can't afford for climate change adaptation to be a new agenda so what we need to do is find ways of using existing resources existing work streams and existing people to tackle this new challenge Durbin's most ambitious climate adaptation project is the reforestation in the bottles dry landfill site the project combines carbon sequestration and restoration of ecosystem services with community upliftment the local community is pay to grow the trees plant the trees and manage the future forest the project helps the crewmen to change their livelihoods and also to improve the environment that we are living in for them is not only to come here and work and earn money at Tulane and go out to their communities and be like the ambassadors it's that fact that we can draw together quite simple things trees and people in a way that hits a bit more cohesive community a cleaner community and a more functional city that's the exciting thing there are a range of response options both mitigation and adaptation at our disposal to manage the risks associated with climate change now regardless of which option we want to pursue there's a common set of ingredients we need to facilitate implementation so we need resources that might include knowledge it might include finance we need governance and institutional arrangements to facilitate coordination and we need effective leadership from the top down and the bottom up in facing a future with climate change aware there's uncertainty we need to view it as a challenge in managing risks the way I look at it is that at a patient in response to these risks some of which are well known and some of which are not is trying to find a way to build a society that's more vibrant more secure richer and fundamentally more resilient so then the question is how are we going to achieve that the how involves a wide range of future steps that need to be taken at every level in society you

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