Sustainable Fly Control for Livestock, Linda Simmons, SD

Sustainable Fly Control for Livestock, Linda Simmons, SD

I am the We have a Partnership on the Catalan I’m the summer Grazing Manager and so? that We kind of Divide The Labor a little bit that Way and I Being The Summer Manager Then When We have Problems with Flies I have to come up with the Plan you know to do something about it and We Just noticed that You need to know it’s hard to know what’s [going] on? Because you can’t go out There at three Thirty one Hot Afternoon and to Say, oh There’s too, Many, Flies Shazam That’s you Know Because your animals Are in Trouble Basically then, you’re Losing Pounds you’re Having other You’re Building Up a, you’re Asking for pinkeye you have A lot of Economic things Coming up Behind You Like A train When There’s Flies going on and so you’d [think] it’d be Easy to Just Know What’s going on With Horn, Flies with Pests Flies and Cattle it sounds so simple, We all know about the Flies but like okay, Just Read This This Is This Is Just the beginning this isn’t the Paper it’s Just the Introduction it’s not Easy to go out and Quantify and Say Oh the Flies are too bad up the Flies are okay so you know how are you you Need to know what your Cattle know they they know things are Bothering Them but They can’t Tell You what that Thursday you Should do something About it And so These Are Remain Flies the Stable Flies We don’t have that Problem in The Pasture Because that’s More of A? Fly That Breeds in Filth Around Buildings or manure Piles and out in the Pasture in South Dakota that’s not an Issue But the face Fly and the Horn Fly are the main Economic past and They Can Cost You Easily They Can cost you forty Pounds in Weaning weight that’s what my vet Told me about Just The Face Fly if it Spreads Pink and The Horn Flies They Can Steal Pounds from you, every, day Because They’re Working your Cattle your Cattle Are going to Work to get Rid of These Flies Now the Horn Flies A lot, Smaller than this and You’ve all Seen Them if You have Cattle They’re Not A native Pest But Cattle aren’t native Either so they got to be With Their Favorite Host and So, we don’t have as Many Natural Enemies of them either as you Would hope you’d Have because they’re not Native and They’re the little Triangular Flies that You See on Cattle So a lot of University People over These, Generations That Work very Hard to try and Help us Figure out When There’s Too Many Flies? so, we Can then Make a plan to do [something] about it so now this is About they’re Talking About one to two Hundred per Head As an Economic Threshold Well I’ll tell you [that] Depends on the Price of Cattle and the Price of your Cattle and so I Really don’t know if This Applies Anymore for sure because Prices are so much Better Than they were So, we’re not and i tried to count I tried to go out and Look at the herd and get UP an Average Is this My Average is this my average Is that my average It’s Really Really Really difficult I don’t know how Many averages you’d have to take Before it was Meaningful you can go out in the Herd One Animal will Have Hardly Any Flies on it and Some other Animal will Look, Like that so Do I really Care about the average Maybe I care about that animal Maybe That’s an Important Animal or Maybe that’s Just too [much] for my Program To have to have even One Like that it’s kind of up [to] you as an Operator So to get a Handle on it Since I saw that Just Counting Wasn’t the whole Story I kind of Started to Look at things this way I know if You Can Read that Back There But I started to consider The behavior of the Cattle Because in A way that’s Counts big With you Know, They Should be Telling us something Cattle don’t lie and and so [if] you Look up here There’s Tail Swishing Which I felt Was like The first sign that you have some Flies and Then Head swinging when the Flies are Worth They start Throwing Their heads Back and Forth if You Have Cattle you’ve all Seen that and Then Are They Stamping That’ll Tell you that you have You might have a Stable Fly Problem because Usually the Horn Flies aren’t making them Stamped so you’re Getting all These messages from the Cattle Behavior and do They Yard Up in the Corner Like this Is This is A if You have cal you know you’ve Seen Them do this they go against the wind they get in The Corner Are They Gaining weight when They’re in That Corner Fighting Flies? They’re Not, They’re Not Utilizing your Pasture as, well so Maybe that’s one of the things that’s that’s that’s Going on? Drinker You to Take some [Action], or Make a new Plan if They’re Yarding I’Ve got Wetlands and mine Are Waiting and Swimming across It that sounds Just fine but They, Were Waiting so much A cow got mired Which Cattle can get mired and She injured Herself, We got her out but She was injured and She’s in My Freezer now? So uh and then this Just Milling We’ll Call it Fighting Flies Is sort of like the slang Term for this Milling? Well you know you, don’t really want to see that her Got A few Runny Eyes You Better You, better write Down How Many Have Running eyes and Maybe even who They Are Because when you come back in Three [days] you Might have Twice as Many and then you might have twice as Many as that so that Looking at your Cattle your Cattle Are Kind of Giving you Clues As to what They’re Dealing with all day? The Runny Eyes You, won’t even See Face Flies Because They’re Only on the Cattle for A short Time during the day and then There then There off the Cattle so you’re not? Going to be able to count them some Maybe you know, We have to kind of? Ask our Cattle what’s Going on I guess and so then I started Thinking, well what Really Makes me Happy When I go out There? so if They’re not Fighting they Should be doing These things They Should Be Eating, Nicely during the day Having a good Time Eating Calves Should Be Sleeping They Should be Split Out in Their Little Babysitting Groups Like They are on the Best Days and and they Should be Laying Down and They Should be Chewing Their Cutters Just doing what they’re supposed to do and You can Get A clue like when the Calves aren’t Sleeping and They’re There They’re Following mom Around to get the Benefit of her Tail? that’s A Clue But Maybe you’re Losing some Pounds on Those Calves Because, they’re too, busy, They’re working too hard Just to lay out There and Pasture and so i made Myself this form that Is Going to be About my kallah my operation my tolerance for Flies So this Morn Fly that’s The large Economic Pest This it has This Life Cycle It Winters in The Ground in South Dakota then it hat Just goes right to the Cattle drives Them Crazy and when the cow [Laza] Fresh Defecates and The Fresh pat Hits the ground That Female Horn flight Zooms out Lays EgGs, on That Fresh pat Well then The larvae See They have a couple of Days and then they Grow? Then They’ll be Coming out in About a week and if you’re Watching your Cattle you’ll see that like There’s Just A few Flies and then in A week, oh man where They’ll come from Hatching so then See this here is what we did in The Past and We put Something in the Mineral that they ate Every Day and You know it Works for a couple of Years but Just Look at this life Cycle what if This doesn’t stop them here Then Nothing’s Nothing stops Them Now back at the Feedlot, we’re Trying to Decide, well how Do We know if the Flyers are Bad at the Feedlot because There’s very Few Flies at our Feedlot The Manure Management is good you move them Remember That Eight-Day Cycle for Horn Flies, well I never Have Horn Flies at the Feedlot because the, Banner doesnt sit Long Enough Gets Hauled away and then There’s a Slat Building Over The pit, Well The Fly Pressure There is very very low? So i asked Mark, well Lets you know Give me some good good Records on between The dry bed Buildings Where We do it A few Flies just, Because it’s kind of A normal environment There and And the Building up a top Well you know Here’s Two very very similar Groups of Cattle and it’s very Easy You know to Differ by that much in A super Controlled Situation so there again you can’t you don’t See Those Pounds Disappearing You don’t know what happened to so the idea of The Economic Threshold Being a trigger, We Lean Meaning like, oh they’re Below the Economic Threshold I’m okay? Maybe not now Maybe not With Today’s Prices Maybe not for your animals you know, We have to kind of each Operation has to Decide? So this is where This is About 330 Acres Where I? Spend Most of my Summer and This These little lines Here are our Grazing System And i think that’s a great Help to us because The Cattle do get moved so when they get moved from here Say all the way here That’s Half a mile at least They’re that much Distance from the manure and so We’re Helping Break Up that life Cycle again When they Come out of the manure they have a long way to go to find a cow but See This Okay, I have to remember that What I do or my average on my animals Is very much Influenced by my neighbors These are all Different Cattle Herds Here all Around me so i’m Not an Island I’m not going to be able to just you know solve my own Problems all by Myself Because I’m Still going to have Flies when the wind blows This way I’ll have flights from here? Here Here Whichever way the mid Blows and I think That’s Pretty typical I Mean That’s Pretty Common for my Area and so I’m not going to Take Credit for like Thinking Ahead of This Problem I’m going to admit [that] this problem came Up and Knocked Me Off The Railroad Tracks Because This Is what happened for Us, we were doing what Responsible People do and we’re Feeding us fly Control that Failed and then that same year so we have the vet Come out? Treat This Pink Eye Problem and Poram okay, we’re Going to solve it no Didn’t solve it What’s auld it was the summer Though the Weather in South Dakota Froze out some Flies and? That will Deceive A Person very Easily that The Weather might Have Killed off The Flies or the natural environment Somehow Has Killed The Flies and You might [Think] it’s what you, did but you can’t always be Sure That what You did Actually got Rid of Those Flies for you so then the next Year Is [like] no more Feed Through That’s I realized that was A big Mistake will not do that and I put Just A few ear tags on the Mineral Barrel That We Feed out of the Holder Instead of Putting Them in Every Cow in Every Calf? Because That’s That’S an Ordeal in Itself Actually and I have News from Lots of People that Those, don’t Work that great Either and And then we, did have one Time during that summer Where or then We sprayed them and We knew he? Couldn’t Use permethrin that Had Already Failed so we did With Recommended and we Switched A Fosmon Which is Organophosphate you Can, Buy in the Hardware Store Great Worked Let Me See it what happened in 2014 We We got in A bind and We were going to use that [phosmet] again and it was Just the most spectacular Failure that You Could you could Ever See But you Had to be Paying Attention before and After to See that it Didn’t do Any good and So I we we sprayed him? This First Time in 2014 and I Texted Mark and The grant Had Just started then you know and So mark and I Work on getting on the Same Page and A text American Said Fosmon Failed at the Pasture he Text Me Back it Failed at the Feedlot to Just A big Just A big flats at Zero so then This other Chemical Here This isn’t the Chemical this is the active Ingredient and Lily Makes it Now and I had Read about this Chemical A couple of Years before that it was Not as Toxic to the Non-Target insects Species and So I found some of it but it Already Wasn’t being Manufactured? Anymore so I found someone Warehouse is Perfectly legal to use but There isn’t any More you Know and That did Work and We and Worked in The Field Lot and at the Pastor just Ninety eight Percent Control We went out and Instead of Hundreds of Flies we had to One Per Animal so I? Mean, We still had To use Pesticides We were, We don’t really? Wake Up in the Morning Wishing that We could go to the pesticide Store but We didn’t want to, We Didn’t want to kill Cattle I mean There was a choice There so? you can See by our what that cost us these Failures so We all know that There is Such A thing as Pesticide Resistance and it’s, well Documented that happens in With Cattle I pasture and Pesticides Are Cheap When They Work Terribly expensive When They Fail and that, was kind of the saddest Part that We Use the Chemical and then it Failed and then you just Really Feel [like] You’ve Just got to Fix this Somehow and Another Chemical it’s going to have the Same troubles so Help Wanted Like what are We going to do? The Chemical Stores Closed what are We going to do and We’d Read about Dung beetles and I just wasn’t smart enough to Catch on Earlier you know that So i started to Look for them Did Find some in 2014 you know After the spring and Everything and oh Actually Fall of 2013 I found something and It was Actually Pretty Exciting like you Just don’t expect to turn over Summoner and? Find happy insects in There But There’s A lot of things in- Runners Alive and So we thought well Maybe more of Those? Insects Is One of the things we could do for Ourselves we Could not Feed? Because When, We fed All This I’m a little Ahead of Myself There? so when we fed The Fly Control in The Mineral and You Remember the Slide it Breaks up the life Cycle of the Fly until You get Resistant Flies and it doesn’t Well in The Meantime it also is Unhealthy for? The Larvae [of] These Good Insects That Are Living in the Manner so when This life Cycle and of this good Insect Encounters The Chemical and The Feedthrough Fly Control then This Good and Sex Life Cycle Is broken And There isn’t a lot of Research It does it the you you can’t Easily Say, oh it Killed Thirty Percent or Killed 20 or Killed 90 you have no idea I Pretty Safe to Say Nobody Has Any idea if it happens in your Pasture So this, [was] One of the things We Decided that not We Should Keep Those and? and Get Rid of the Things That Fail Us So then I went on the net Looking for things and I came across some Plans for a Contraption and My unhappy Dog Is Modeling here he’s like what this isn’t right so [maybe] do This But huh so so Pesticides Can Fail Because the such A thing is Resistance Dung Beetles Are great but you can’t Just like go to the Store and Buy Them Either and Say, oh Now get to Work like Be great, do You get a five-Gallon Pail Once They Fix this so you can’t Buy Anything but To Keep This Train from Coming Up Behind Us in Hating Us again Found This Contraption Vented Invented in I think the 1930S and It’s called a bruce Box or a Walk Through warren Flytrap and The you Can See here University of Missouri They Built One and They tested it and it Worked Fifty Percent Control in Missouri Lots of Fly Pressure in Missouri and That Fifty Percent was enough that They Didn’t Have to treat the cal With Anything Else for Flies, oh? Now we’re Talking Because There You Could See that you’re not going to Easily Develop Resistance to this and at least it’s something else Another Arrow in your Quiver to Keep This Fly to Keep the Flies running you, over in That Train again Now This One was Really expensive Because it’s the first one That’s Been built in South Dakota Or I don’t know it could be The first one Built in decades I can’t find Anyone Else who has One you Can Buy A Five-Thousand-Dollar One With Electricity and A vacuum Cleaner for your Dairy Those Are Actually Commercially Available They Walk in and The vacuum Cleaner Sucks the Flies off but This Should Work for Horn Flies it’s a cattle Walk in Right Where my dog Is It’ll it He’ll have a Rough and It’ll have some Canvases Hanging right Here So that as the Cattle Walk in and the canvases Brush the Cattle the Flies are Trapped in Here This is Screen on Screen so they Think They’re Flying out Towards the light and Instead of getting out There’s Little Slits in The Screen They Should They’re Supposed to and They, Did in Missouri Crawl Into the Slits to get to the light end up trapped between the outer Screen and the Screen right [Here] and I would have just thought it. Was kind of A crazy Idea but They tested it in Missouri and it Worked and They Didn’t have any I Didn’t Really Have Any Bias They Probably Didn’t even Expect it to Work but They Reported that it was Successful So, we built this This Is Ours? This belongs to the grant and it’s Ready to go now in the spring Just News that roof But if I put the Roof in the Canvases, on he Couldn’t see what how it was Made and It was so exciting for the Welder who built the frame I had have A welder build the Frame and Then a carpenter Build the Boxes and It was sitting out by the Welding Shop and he Told me I had to come and get it Take it Home Because Too Many Cattlemen, were Stopping by asking Questions and he Couldn’t get Any Work Done So that was the interesting to people People I mean Regular Commercial Cattlemen So i think They’re Having the Same Problems that I’m Having that they want to Control Flies but you can’t Just go to the Store and Buy something to Fix it and Oh There’s Screen on Both Sides So after They Get in Those Little Slits they Just Can’t find Their Way back on? So it’d be like if your Windowpane Had Two screens and There’s a hole on The House Side and the Flies got in There it’s very Hard for him to find Their Way back out the hole That’s why it Had this See how it’s like an Accordion so the Accordion Folds Totally Confuse Them so on the way out There Crawling, Into The Fold and There’s a Slit There They get Inside Well on the way if They’re Trying to get back the Way they came? will Know They end Up in the Apex of The Fold Again Rather Than Curly not the Tip and getting Through Hopefully Over Time They Don’t get so clever that they Figure it out but I kind of don’t think they will I think I have Time Yeah it’s Supposed to Work There’s a little Clean Outdoors Here for For Dumping out the dead Flies yes Okay, Because you got 100 Cattle that Thing’s going to fill up with Flies it’s going to be gross it’s Gonna Make Great Pictures Yeah This is the other Trap, We um? We built and This IS an Interesting one it was First Developed for Tatsu Flies in Africa and I’m Thinking? That Sounds good you know Flies in Africa I want to get my flies that can’t be Tougher Than that and It’s been True it’s some Right now This is the only Website up today but before that at. Nz flight nz traps Com There’s Been Quite A few Papers done on it Particularly This Paper was interesting because it was? Trying These Traps in Canada Where You get A lot of Species of Flies very similar to what We have Here and They? Did Great Trials on it it Catches A lot of [Different] Species so my Horn Flies Maybe I Can Cover them with that mechanical locks or Trap and Then my other Species of Which There’s Really Quite a few that can be a Problem Some of Them at least might be Attracted to this And I’ll tell you just what, We were setting it up? There is something special about the blue color as Reported [in] The Paper A very Particular Shade of Blue They Tell You Which Benjamin Moore Paint to Buy Actually That I mean They Just Think Lana they Flew to this Thing and They covered this and before The Frost That Came Around Probably Around Eleven O’clock at night or whatever um We caught several Hundred Flies and was Only UP for A few Hours and Those, were the Stable Flies at my? Neighbors Sheep Lot and So that was the first Thing he and I had Come across that Would help him with his Same Insecticide Resistant Problem There he’s one of Those Neighbors in That Picture Where i said Cattle Cattle cow Well he has Cattle and Sheep and He’s adjacent to my Pasture so We’re Going to [cooperate] so I’ll Attach links for the Plans and links to the Papers On to my cZars Grant Report Because I’ve Been Told that’s the easiest Way for Anyone to [find] them So mike’s Concern. Is that the Cattle might not Care to Walk Through this and I’m not worried about it for my herd Because I Already Have Their Quite used to me and Moving for me in the Grazing System and I can Move them Into The Corral for other Treatments We have done so I’ve Already I know this Can Happen Because I’ve Already put them Through the crawl Many Times and I can do it Myself in 20 Minutes With that dog right There and They’re Just There They’ll Walk Through That Easier Than Into a shoot i’m Sure so mike Said how often will I have to be out There to run These Cattle Through in Missouri They Set it up they got the Cattle to go through Once and They had it Set Up between the Water and the Grazing The Cattle Voluntarily Went Through it and They even noted that the Cattle Seemed to understand What it was for like it Felt good and they Would Walk Through it Voluntarily not for Water Just to Walk Through it So that’s a pretty Exciting if That happens I’Ll Have a Video for you because that Would be very very Exciting to have a Zero Labor Way to, Help Cattle with Their Flies that is a great Question I’m so glad you asked it of Just that We just they Just got finished in September and So, we just did A quick trial of it and Sep Tember Where the Fly Season was About done, oh it’s no Problem Filling This Little Sock up with her With Flies We didn’t get to count and you know? See if it was significant for Though but it does it Does Attract them and Catch them and There’s no Bait in There Just the blue color Yeah I’m Surprised too I

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