SZN: “Secreted immune effectors shape the ecology of microbiomes: lessons from Ciona robusta” pt2

SZN: “Secreted immune effectors shape the ecology of microbiomes: lessons from Ciona robusta” pt2



animals appear to be colonized by license and high proportions and no caffeine so there's more messages associated with animals there is so it appears that nitrogen and here's a one example it has to prove aids in the genome so this was a long time this is a knockout for SMU this is and be enlightening negatively impacts its ability to form bottom because the wall site forms less vital film than anyone else including the single house various need more biofilms and a location and we're sequence now understand humans have seen data showing that one of these forces these immune proteins matter another feature that we discovered recently that you produce this is why studying these microbes is cultural in fact Syria to colonize develop animals appear to be undergoing phaser base variation is a common thing that bacteria often do under stress also known as more context switching and is often driven by epigenetics or genome inversions and that phase variance can alter behavior the bacteria and often simulates some kind of the benefit for example in cholera or Pseudomonas Pseudomonas has this inversion that occurs around the flatulent genes so that when it wants to call in the old surface but it went from being a non oxygen to a passage into a phaser by 16s you would see one bacteria but you actually have three community bacteria living that guy and this is why deal with all this variation that the variation in the microbiomes actually orders of magnitude higher than all being over 16s the bacteria college bacterial complicated right so the protocol supports a simple model system doesn't have a community so you got a simple process in which is me and you system has to be able to deal with all this diversity of function so and the ihe domains we know by in the bacterial binding domains purified proteins native proteins using cotton balls and we know that V CEQ are sonic right they automatic bacteria which means of the bacteria increased and we don't know that the CD is not basically the BCP scene we found decent people applies to the nudists right here's BCP and red and here's like the faculty contracts that Mussina shows his little box the BCP pole classes to that mucus which is worth a little bit colonizing and we were asking how does it be see each other there and to ask that question we have to understand how the Pennine domain functions but we'll do that we ask when micros colonized the surface they're encountering ECP's and this is the subway contacted Bill Parker up a few years ago this idea that we found ECP's we're actually shaping vital information in a positive way but a lot of these native bacteria they're binding the bacteria influencing their soma dynamics and shading biofilm formation and it's very specific you use IgA in the same experiments with marine bacteria same concentration of e vcp IG is a combination filtration for bring in the same thing bt piece on eco line so there's some kind of specificity involved with marine bacteria here's an example untreated either be sneaky treated with Pseudomonas train Annelise he killed all the controls we saw a device so the effect of pcp now we know these phases they effectively CP is different on different patients this is now the face of the translucent where DCP impacts the formation of albums at one bearing and in the other bearings as lesser than effects and then the double knocked out it has no effect until later in experience right or seems to delay so and this is an effect of BCPs on these different phaser so the phase journeys themselves are the bacteria are changing their behavior and their function as a way potentially to deal being bound with these and universities is a new group things are shaping there and so this story becomes complex because you've got DCP binding to these different vaccines are all folded under one phase rage and this is constant yin-yang but what this set of experiments found was that the phase journey is nearly the profane before effect in a different way by the ECP so under stationary condition we know that BCP some logitech violet balls we think it involves directly rotation russian athletes and I'll get this anime because bacteria lessons are about the ECB's when we do TV analyst on the super ratings we see a bunch of pages is arranged so the VC peas are inducing the formation of and release of pages from the bacteria and when that occurs you get the release of eat nanny so not only that the viral particles that are being released but you get eating and shed from all bacteria their lysine and these things become substrates for about formation more powerful to do that so DNA is a great sample population and each of these including motility data see them that beauty CP ICC's interface earnings and effects of motility and the mobility itself and so so we know from stationary cultures that when you add at least leukemia amount being a the technical cultures time this is how we know that eating anything leaks a teenager may be measured by total one and cycle sixty staying pure viable cells and when we use lytic phases of the control the lytic pages if you tax rate them can give you the same kind of staining pattern as the Bible tells that just happy PCP excellent so the BCP is shaping powerful information in part by a rotating motion pathway that leads to the production of eating and that's what these experiments show that you follow the different behavior the two different attitudes and shut up if you're the hot if you follow hater over time you can find the induction totally from these cultures this actually these are face particles that are coming directly from the super meanie of these induced fractions and these and these fractions are generating virus assembly by device and see an emergency this mutagen that is known to induce growth ages that's your control and Dulce services so the licenses in the induced state is making sort of critical role in shaping running right because it if we came back that the pages integration of genome and random positions and that can affect their about synthetic pathways in in factor is binding and activities Pro pages it could be affecting busted after the bacteria also the production of page articles the release of information more you're an example would one confirmed case that we different from from probation of to offer once when you induce your pheromones with PCP to in to rotate the page particle that it makes is directly living against our show okay and this is a virus at school for monthlies so what over much B's dis fighters that in fact showing off 32:13 and I see a whole student effector abiding this bacteria meets this virus and kills this bacteria and that's mediated by the host an ineffective there's huge implications and we have this map of pathways that we're trying to work out with all these are strains of bacteria it's Monica and we almost have active our strains of sequence now we sequence them to see the whole genome to have a better idea of how these proteins and basically what we think is happening is that these proteins reduce and the barber particles are recognizing other bacteria as a new host for consideration or to mysoline it can be either work and all these pathways are pathways that we have preliminary evidence that these stages are actually integrating to the other bacteria deprivation and we have actually six thousand three-one just this past week we confirmed and in fact a sunbed one and integrates the genome adolescent so they've actually integrated into the genome and now six out of five when we come to resist so to find out and answer this question we need a recombinant protein where we took the human igg1 FC region and made a fusion with a CD from sideline and this he came up and basically we find that the government is if rich and more and more and more returned to recognize dog animal this is recently shown on zero vision law a lot of animals make hydration mucus for various reasons right that ain't aquatic animals meet chitin to help the surface because crystalline dn8 morpholino knockdowns chitin zebrafish and they had colitis and all they all you do was who offered me this album use without appears it up so they're aquatic animals having cut probably helps the mutants Heather but also the new this the kind review this is mostly helping promote the civility and prevent infection diapers on would be a protozoan often and not penetrate patent services unless you're a zone involve that straight up spring tidings of the group but it's probably as a committee and have resulted to me these type of assurances but the kind of sound is actually a huge urban reservoir bacteria because a lot of this set animals this is create a kind of circus the representing and makes heightened eases and you want to kind of easily see how the mobile production of titans would create this digestion of Titan to crease diffusion of carbon rich molecule that would bloomer bacteria to call my services actor above Titan so basically what we find is a DCP is secreted some mucus and tethers to this Titan rich news and that's how it stays attached and you can slay intractable bacteria but that in another series of investigations we also recognized and supported termination sports but among each these fifty had an opposite effect eating bacteria almost consistently BCP reduces the formation of violence and yeast form so we know that I Tyrian actually colonized mucosal surfaces together with fungi all the green dots are fungi education so fungi are coal colonizing the Postal Service's bacteria so imagine having a new factor that combine both bacteria fungi and an environment like a dump that you want to bring things together to encourage their interaction out here to protect the host because when bacteria are in close proximity to fungi destination fungi to make and the bacteria may antifungals so the bacteria fungi so there's you know there's a bacteria of colonizing funky as a way to control ichael spray so any other fungi it's functionally relevant in ways that are organ so our hypothesis of ECP shape bacterial interactions by imposing our tune and these cookies influence the ratio of bacterial fungal interactions on East bottles so that fighting bacteria and fungi can affect hostility and Vesey piece could be tipping the scale between bacterial fungal I'll probably because in general it's healthier to have fungi often are much more opportunity so these kind of series also basically get equal funding in general tend to be ignored in most studies and they're always there interacting with bacteria and us so you guys are thinking about not just bacteria of how fungi need to rock the bacteria and this interaction I think the goddamn microcosm for complex mike koval interaction it could be so many drugs especially for microbes in the ocean that the ring is microbes into proximity to generate these complex metal products there's probably a ton of drugs so wait that's it none of this work so much of the work that depending really sufficient really pretty freakin was wanted to start all the crew and then oh just jump in now oh this is the one that's been working on all the phase variation and helping out in our house so in a fantastic history and grad students and undergrads and collaborators and of course we've had the general support of two very nice

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