The environment and milk: get the facts

The environment and milk: get the facts



hi everyone welcome to the environment of milk at the facts we've been organized by various members of Canada's team of registered dieticians my name is Joanne Gallagher I'm a registered dietician and nutrition specialist at dairy farmers of Canada and your moderator for today we're just thrilled to welcome all of you with more than 1000 registrants from right across the country today the three-minute presentation will be followed by a 15-minute question period you can send your questions through the chat box at any time and that we'll try to answer as many questions as we can during the Q&A to download the presentation simply click the link at the bottom of your screen today's and it's been very important for the Canadian dairy production sector to understand its environmental impacts Canadian dairy farmers live and work on the farms every day so they care about protecting the land the water and the air for their families neighboring communities and the future generations farmers want their farm to be part of the physical and social landscape we went to the future because they want their farms to be passed on to their children this Victor has been investing in research for more than two decades in Canada in order to ensure it's continually moving forward it includes research and practices that improve animal health the environment and mow quality farmers aspired to be leading edge in their production practices and economically and environmentally sustainable when producing a high-quality nutritious product with petitions and healthcare professionals were all aware of the importance of promoting sustainable dietary practices optimizing our clients and patients nutritional health in that light we hope that we can answer some of your questions today around milk production and the environment I'm really pleased to introduce mr. jean-michel lacouture jean-michele is a partner and senior consultant at group as eco and as an agricultural economist John Michell has experience in agricultural policy and international trade he's an expert in the field of corporate social responsibility and has participated in several Canadian and European projects involving the review evaluation and deployment of sustainability standards in particular in the field of social cycle analysis jean-michele focus is to help organizations assess understand and improve their environmental and socio-economic performance with that we'll turn the session over to you John Michell thank you John for the introduction and welcome everyone I'm really pleased to be here today for this webinar entitled the environment and milk get the facts so as the title suggests my objective today is to demystify some of the concepts data and results pertaining to the environmental and back of milk production here in Canada because as you certainly know there is an ongoing discussion happening globally both in Canada regarding the impact of a group of action and livestock production in particular we'll also the impact of our dairy patterns and the way we eat so in that context my intent today is actually both provide some background information needed to better understand how the impact and footprint and the under mental impact of food products such as milk he is usually measured but also to describe in prison the current performance of of milk production in Canada from an environmental standpoint and also described in prison how this footprint evolved over time and why so the information will be presenting today is based on a report that was commissioned by the dairy farmers of Canada oscuro in 2017 and published in 2018 a report that Gajic who had the opportunity to conduct and realize as I'm sure as a drone mention at the beginning so there will be the presentation and then 15 minutes to answer any of your questions so please do not hesitate to write them down as I'm walking through the presentation and I'll be more than happy to answer any of your questions regarding the presentation and the results of the study so moving moving forward so the amount of the presentation goes as follows first I wanna take a step back in a few minutes to present the lifecycle assessment methodology which was used to measure the footprint and the environmental performance of milk production in Canada so you will hear me a lot using this acronym the LC a to the lifecycle assessment because I mean when we hear a lot I mean today is becoming more and more mainstream to talk about the footprint of products or our companies or organization or even industries as a whole and when you hear about the concept of footprint usually it's based on the LCA methodology and that's all the methodology we use in that project so in order to understand why this methodology is used for widely and the meaning of the results underlying them underlying it so I think it's important to talk a bit about about this approach then I'll move on and present that the objectives of the project so basically the goal and scope of the study I was referring to and how we actually come back to the the whole assessment and then have some more time for something to result themself so of course any more time regarding the on the carbon footprint which is maybe the most important or most widely used indicator when we think about the sustainability and the environment of sustainability of our product but I also have a look and discuss the other anatomical indicators that we looked at in this study because I mean sustainability is something that covers a lot of ground especially on the under mental side then are complete and conclude the presentation by linking this result in this city as a whole to the overall discussion regarding how sustainable food is and how sustainable our diets can be and to what extent and how these results actually fit in that discussion and can contribute to the conclusions and recommendations coming out of that but before I'll jump to the presentations also a quick word about the hepaticus or work holding company we're building Quebec so we've been around for about 20 years now our team is comprised of 20 professionals or most of us are AG economists or professional in the agricultural sector but we my colleagues are so engineers and communication experts and over the last 20 years we've been working with pretty much all the players in the agri-food sector here in Canada but also in the States and in Europe to help them understand their social economic and environmental performance and then from these results make more informed decision about how the wady can improve the performance at a time and of course this is what that that experience and expertise that we've been supporting the dairy farmers of Canada in their and the resident of their of note production here and this of course leads me to share full closure with you so as you figured out at this point of course the study that we we that the basis of this presentation as well as this presentation was inundated and commissioned by the dairy farmers of Canada and Mexico received honoraria to conduct in prison this presentation but I can assure you that the logical as an expert in corporate social responsibility and sustainability walked the soft when it saw when it's time to conduct their projects and come back their studies so we can and I can guarantee the food independence and objectivity in the preparation and presentation of these results so now let's move on and jump in into the presentation itself starting with the presentation of the LCA methodology so like I said in the beginning you will ensure you heard and you're hearing a lot about the concept of and removal footprint officially in the agri-food sector and when we talk about was that wooden talk about the diets and the type of food we eat so the thing is now nowadays is becoming more and more mainstream to talk about that footprint and the idea of ungrammatical impact of our mean of companies and food systems and actually there is every couple of weeks now with your report or an article in a newspaper referring to the impact of the challenges we're facing a society dealing with those environments on impact but the thing that's we need to remember is that these these these results and these data are really in rather recent and these are our studies that are just taking place right now and more and more data are are coming in as organizations are conducting such a study but what I want to highlight here at this point is the fact that there is a Dairy Farmers of Canada actually being forerunners in the development and use an implementation of the LCA methodology here in Canada the organization back in 2012 was the first commodity group in Canada to conduct a national LCA of their production and the results were published in 2012 based on 2011 data this first assessment was took place as part of a research project and the intent back in the days was to establish the first baseline of of what what is the footprint of producing milk in Canada and what are the main contributors so where what what what are the factors impacting the most the environment when were producing milk so back in the days in 2012 it was the first organization doing this work and they actually where the dear farmers of Canada the first organization globally to conduct an environmental and social life cycle assessment of their operation because we also looked back then to the social and economic performance of their activity so that's something to to highlight the belief and also the fact that five years later she decided to update this result and this is basicly the results and the study I'm referring to today so in 2018 the update was of that first report was released based on 2016 data so the organization remained proactive in understanding and communicating about their footprint so like I said the nowadays the idea of the environmental footprint or impacts of producing different types of commodities or and food products is becoming more and more mainstream and actually today LC A's are part of the Canadian sustainability landscape I won't list all the organizations on this slide here and this is just a sample of Canadian organization but I have to say that most commodity group as well as companies professors retailers now as we're conducted or are involved in LD related project so that's the case in the defector eggs industry in the chicken sector as well the port sector has been really reactive on that front as well the same applies to the grain and they said the plant base industry that is that invested together over the last few years a significant amount of time and resources in conducting a study now the question is why would so many organizations spend time and in death I mean scarce resources in conducting LCA and conduct that else a related project well the answer to that question is the fact that else he can actually provide answers to numerous critical questions facing the agri-food industry well the first item that comes to mind when you think about that it's all the environmental challenges were facing a society we all hear about the climate change impacts the fact that there are many activities affecting the air and water quality the fact that right now many regions are facing water and resources that's courtesy as well as the impact on biodiversity and so on and so forth so the idea there we know about those challenges and we know about those issues but what is not the statistical clear is to what extent a specific industry or product is contributing more or less to those challenges and by conducting LCA an industry or a sector such as the Canadian dairy sectors can better understand using adding accessed quantitative and reverser rubra data I can understand the impact of their activities on those concerns and issues and it's not only about understanding the negative impact of their activities it's also a way to understand what could be or what are the positive contributions of the sector to those challenges and you may you may have heard about carbon sequestration in the soils or the fact that some industry can actually help recycle waste or or or you revalorisé some products that would otherwise impact the environment so it's always this is a methodology in a way to better understand how an industry can be part of the solution and not only be impacting the environment it's also way using LCA to make more informed decision and this is true in regards to consumers expectations I mean as citizen as consumers we all coming most of us try to find ways to reduce our impact on the environment so some of us may want to buy and purchase more organic products go for non-gm products add up be part of this new food movement or or try to promote local sourcing or local purchases and the thing is they may be some contrary intuitive impact or they may be some consequences or trader related to those different market expectations or market demand so by using LC a result the industry or any actors in the in the industry can actually provide science-based information to consumers to make sure that we provide the right information and make the right decision when it's time to reduce our impact on the environment so it's true for consumers it's also true for the governament so of course as a society we want to manage those concerns and manage of challenges so there is new laws coming in and trying to let's say regulated carbon tax you can think about animal welfare regulation of pesticides so many policies many programs are being designed and implemented to reduce the impact of our activities on the environment and again to make sure that these initiatives are effective to address the environmental impact they try to achieve it's important to have access to sound information information that is provided by out the resultant system and lastly one of the key reason why organizations in the agri-food sector or I mean in other industries as well are conducting lc8 is because I mean the results can be used as a solid building block a saline building block story on which you can develop a sustainability or corporate social responsibility journey by understanding your footprint identify best practices that measure your results and communicate your performance of time so these are all the reasons why LCA is becoming so mainstream and then do you hear more and more about the footprint of products and agri-food sector now I talked a lot about LCA to say why it's so important and why it's so useful but I didn't it's not me I didn't say anything during what it is actually how it worked so the key item there's the fact that LCA is an internationally recognized knitter so it's not something that is equal to vlog this came up with it's actually something that is standardized by ISO standards so when a practitioner such as as you go or any other practitioners want to develop an LCA they have to follow specific guideline the other key characteristic of LC study is the fact that they look at the under mental impact of a product or or organization from a cradle to grave perspective so we do not only look at the impact related let's say to producing milk or again or consuming milk they look at the impact of the entire value chain the entire lifecycle starting with the production of the raw input and the rough the extraction of the raw materials needed throughout the life cycle of the project of the product theory in order to produce the feed comes out the operations on the farm transport process products use it at home and then manage the end-of-life and the waste of it so by adopting just comprehensive and systematic vision you can avoid what I like to call the false good solution so something that you may think has a good impact on the environment but when you look at these complete pictures then you realize that there are other impacts that might actually be higher elsewhere in the in the whole system a good example of that would be packaging so you may think that by removing the packaging at one stage of the supply chain is a good thing because I mean by removing the packaging then you reduce the waste and you reduce the impact overall but the reality is if the packaging help preserving the food for a longer time and managed to avoid that food to be doing to waste and going to a landfill well you may want to reconsider your assessment and they at the end of the day using an LCA approach you may realize that overall impact under mental footprint of that product using the packaging is actually lowered and not using it so this is where the result of such study can actually lead to counterintuitive results which lead to better more informed decision so and lastly the last characteristic of LCA is the fact that it smoothly indicators so you look in not only as warmth that event past but that more than one and again this enables users of LCA to better understand the trade up from an environmental standpoint of conducting specific activity so like I said earlier so LC is also a science-based approach so practitioners the I mean are are truly as strong incentives to actually use international standards and guidelines when conducting such studies and there are guidelines and for different sectors including in the dairy sector there industry so different organizations or developing defenders and making sure that you streamline the way this is finding the system and assessing the impact of its activity so this is again just to let you know that it's a science-based approach which would throes and count because you have to realize that science is the slow evolving process and building new knowledge is a slow thing so when you want to conduct an elf yeah you have to build your your assessment on consensus and things that are well established so there are some insight some consideration that are not yet as consensual in terms of how to capture some incremental impacts and this is not necessarily something that is taking into account in LCA because it's based on well-established science results and the last word regarding the methodology as I was saying there are many many indicators I could be used to ask tests in a more comprehensive and systematic way the incremental impact of producing different products such as meals but the most frequently measured indicators are the carbon footprint such related to climate change the water use and the natural resources such as land use or again energy consumption but you may come across studies mainly coming from the academic world well where you will see other indicators such as biodiversity and human health these indicators are not as well established from a methodological standpoint but they are out there as well and this exemplifies the fact that has science is evolving more and more indicators are taking into account to have a more comprehensive understanding of the different impacts of our activities on the environment so now I tried in the last few minutes to present what is LCA what is an LCA study why people are using it and what are the benefits so now with this in mind let's move on and started this mortify specifically of all the project objectives and the approach so basically the goal and scope of the project condition by the dairy farmers of Canada so let's start with the objective which of course is the first and major starting point so the idea in 2017 when we started the project was to provide another month all assessment of current practices of the industry and measure its evolution over a five year period in other words the idea back then was to quantify the the footprint of milk production in Canada in 2016 going to the study was to place in started actually in 2017 but we had to establish a temporal baseline which was to 2016 once that was done the idea was to update the 2011 results in order to be able to compare the 2016 to the 2011 results and using the same methodology so using the updated approach to make sure that we can compare apples to apples and then be able to understand if and to what extent and why the footprint evolved over that five-year term so the goal is of course of critical importance but the scope of the study is also super important to understand the meaning of the results so in an LCA like I said the scope could be a cradle to grave sculpt or perspective so I mean the whole lifecycle in this specific project the goal discovery was a cradle to processor state go so that means that all the activities all the processors all the the impacts were captured starting from the production of raw resources coming from I mean starting with the mineral and energy and all this and all the resources needed to conduct all the activity and the system stuff at the processing plant level so this includes like I said all the the production of the resources needed to conduct the activities and then more specifically all the energy needed on farm and also to build infrastructure to come the activities to produce the seeds needed to see the animals and then of course all the activities to manage livestock in there the animals and all of course the emissions and the output of that production the such as manure and and and so on and so forth so the transportation of meals to the procedures gage was also include in the system and what we came up with and where the system ends is actually raw milk so the other important aspect here I want to mention is the fact that when we talk about LCA is there is also always a functional unit both I mean basically a common denominator used to report the impact for that project the functional unit was one kilogram of fat and correct and protein corrected milk produced on a Canadian farm and transported to a processor facility so all there is the results you all be presenting in the minute our report is on a basic deal one kilogram of raw milk another critical aspect when conducting LCA is of course the data sources and the quality of the data available which is a great news in Canada is the fact that we have access in general and specifically in the agri-food sector to reliable data and when we have access to reliable data on a specific sector or activity when we can expect reliable result so here like I said we had access and we used high quality data from secondary sources including data from governament statistic agencies nationally and provincially also the data from different agencies operating in the darién Theory sector we also had we also used an innovative approach in that project to complete this secondary data by collecting data at the Forum level and we did that by true survey at the firm level and OH close to 600 farmers across the country participated in that survey and this theory helps us document the best practices implemented on a farm in 2016 and 2011 to make sure that we understand what's happening and to be able to model the impact of those practices in the so the other key item there is the modeling so the results i'll be presenting in the minused is based on a national assessment so it's a national national average but it takes into account the provincial specificities and characteristics so we all know Canada is a huge country and producing mills in Quebec and producing it in Alberta is quite different I mean the context the geography I mean so many variables are different throughout the country so it's important to have reliable results and representative results to take into account this characteristic and this is what we did in that project and of course you can be assured that like I mentioned earlier Elsie is a science-based approach and the later guidelines were used to make sure that the result are consistent and rather so now we can move on and talk a bit more about the results themselves starting with the carbon footprint and then the other and remodel indicators so we're here on that slide you will add the result of the environmental footprint of Canadian mills in 2016 and 2011 so I will just walk really slowly in that slide to make sure that all the key messages and information is well understood so the key message here is offer the fact that the carbon footprint water consumption and land use which are the three in theatres that we captured in that study associated with news production and again it's warm to the gram of fat and protein corrective meals in Canada well this footprint for the three indicators decreased by seven point three five point six and ten point nine percent respectively between 2011 8 2016 so and you see those results on the figures below here on the fly so when you look at the secret what do you realize well in the first the first thing is of course we see that between the the five years period we see that decree of the footprint let's say the carbon footprints moving from one to the ground with users with equivalent to 0.92 the same with the water consumption twenty seven point three liters of kilogram of milk to twenty five point eight and then on the land use of one point nine square meter per year per kilogram of milk to one point seven square meters per year of land just pretty milk so what you see here the other day I would say the other main result there is the fact that the contribution on the of each lifecycle state that are represented here by the different color code you see on the graph so going from production like button a German transport and so on and so forth they don't change much over the period so you realize for instance of the contribution of speech production in the land use indicator it's pretty much the same I mean these these the main factors contributing to this footprint remain the same about the period but the main difference here is the fact that the intensity of producing Milt got was diminished while it was reduced significantly over this five years period so in a nutshell the idea there is the fact that the industry was able to produce more meal using less resources in fact the better corporate activity is the main driver explaining the improvements in the environmental profile of producing mills over the five years area so the nd productivity actually increased by 13 percent over over the period and this is the main driver explaining the changes in the results you see in the speaker but productivity is not the only reason why the improvement in the situation got better over the years in the industry actually farmers also adopted best practices which helped reduce the footprint over time because as you will see in a minute again there are some I mean major areas that are more affecting different than others and for those areas such as speed efficiency manual management crap production while the survey enabled us to capture the fact that farmers was moving and progressing towards the adoption of practices having a lower I mean less impact on the environment so I won't get too technical here but just that if you know that is they on the steep side producers that I mean move towards are more optimization formulation reducing the impact of enteric fermentation as we'll see they also have better management practices in regards to miners storage and also adopting new practices to still in manage with that manually such as combusting in anaerobic digestion the same applies with crop production and we'll see again in a minute that crop production is a major factor respecting the footprint so producers started up things and better practice practices going from pious practices crop rotation and adapting technology is enabling enabling them to use this resources to produce more grains and higher yields and crop production so again it's the mix of increasing the productivity and other things with practices that's made a difference over five years in reducing the footprint of the industry now if one had a closer look at the footprint of the Canadian milk producing milk but like I said earlier the result in 2016 shows that the production of one program of meals produces point 92 kilogram of co2 equivalent in 2016 so of course the result itself is quite interesting it's good to know I mean to set the baseline again and to compare that baseline to the 2011 baseline and to see like I said that here's a decrease of 70% than that in that regard Oh the result is useful but when you conduct an LCA the idea is not just to get a result and run with it the idea is to understand what is contributing to both to that impact to that result in order to be able to improve that impact over time to reduce your impact over time and when you look at the graph and this in this slide on this slide then you realize that there are few stages in the industry in the life cycle that are impacting quite a lot that overall footprint of Canadian milk actually there are three main factors contributing the most to that footprint the first one is an Tirek emission which account almost the half of the main of the of the overall carbon footprint of milk and a Canadian milk so here enteric emissions are related to an Tirek fermentation so basically these are the gases produced by the animals in this case cows when they are digesting the seeds they are given so this is money here it's just to highlight and and mention something is the fact that in many cases and even among some professionals we hear that Karl towels are actually farting and this is their spark that are at impacting climate change the reality is they are burping that doesn't change much at you know that the in terms of the impact on the environment but I just want to make to highlight that and make sure that all clear cows are mostly burping methane coming from an initial fermentation sorry so just to make sure that it's all here for everyone so this is the main the main the main factors contributing to the carbon footprint so basically cows for uh birth but the two other factors there which are actually related is seed production which accounts for almost 30 percent of the overall footprint and the man your man agent which is again account for close to 20 percent it's interesting to realize that there are close connection between aunty recommission which are related to what speech production which is of course how you produce the thing given to the animal and the manual management so basically how you deal with basically the output of cows after they digested their food so if you want to play and reduce the impact of enteric Commission's of cow then you may have to adapt the type of ration and feed that are given to them in which case which will have also an impact in the manner they produce and of course manner is being used to fertilize first lies the soil that is used to produce crust that is then used to develop and produce the seed given to the animal so the idea there you have to understand that when we're talking about food and especially of life but production we're talking about the system if something this is living it's all interconnected so if you want to reduce the impact of a specific stage in the lifecycle you need to adapt and adopt a systematic comprehensive understanding on all the interactions affecting the system because you cannot adapt and I mean play with one variable we thought considering all the other impacts in the consequences with the other variable so this is what make less baby LCA and understanding the environmental impact of food production so complicated because it's not a car factory when you can just play and replace a piece is something it is all tightly related another interesting insights coming from this figure here is the fact that energy use and mill transportation contribute to about 6 percent of the life cycle impact of this overall system so this is not to say that is there is no room for improvement regarding the energy use on farms and the impact of transportation on the environment the thing is when you look at the overall picture from a life cycles perspective then you realize that these are maybe not the main hospital maybe not the main factors on which you want to act on sir so if we move on and now look at the other indicators well as the water consumption and land-use result so like I said earlier the production of one kilogram of milk consumes the twenty five point eight liters of water and uses 1.7 square meter of land in 2003 so if we look first at water in theatres it's interesting to realize that 44 percent of the water consumption is on farm production it's related basically to on farm production of animal feed and only a quarter is is related to direct use on farm to water the animals or cleanability so again in the life cycle perspective we realize that the bulk of the water use is not related to livestock per se it's related to cross production and again you have to look at the issues from a life I call the supply chain perspective so it's not a new one stage if I see something that comes as a whole system and then when we look more specifically at the land use result then you realize that 85 percent of the land use its produced feed on site and giving I mean and and when you look at this reproduction as a whole so this is the sheep farmers by it's almost 95 systems so of course the main that most of the impact related to land use is related to speed production so basically producing crop so it's always interesting to put these numbers in context because may not always super intuitive to understand what does that mean twenty five point eight liters of water or something like that so here in the case of water just as you know so using twenty five point eight liters of water to produce one kilogram of meals is is the equivalent to a hour well you know eleven three minutes of shower base so it's not that much I mean always clumsy too too too pretty to use such equivalencies but still is the way to understand the impact of these numbers regarding the water use as well I just want to highlight another item that is not on the fly is the fact that irrigation is the key contributors to the water footprint in general and here in Canada we're not using much irrigation in general and especially not to produce the feed needed to feed the animal so just this is again another important aspect to consider because in other regions for other commodities the user of irrigation might might be or is much higher and as soon as you use irrigation to produce something the water footprint of that product is skyrocketing and again this is a kind of a good characteristic here in Canada of our food systems that we're not losing that much irrigation for the land use indicators again if we put things a bit into context and we realize that if you take the overall news production for a year left in 2016 while the amount of land use is similar I mean it is equivalent to less than 3% of Canada agricultural land use so it's not that much when you're taking to account when you consider the importance of the industry so this is where you realize again that these numbers that put into context to understand their meaning so of course the objective of that study was not to compare this result with with others out there but the idea was not to compare the performance or the impact producing one to the ground of milk in Canada to the impact of producing it elsewhere around the world but the idea was to understand the impacts of producing milk ears understand and to compare it to the past performance and understand in order to improve the situation over time that being said having these numbers at hand it's always useful and interesting to put them again in context and understand where Canada dispersed and when it comes to its fundamental impact of producing here so to do that we referred to data provided by the FAO for the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and that organization using a similar methodology calculated the LCA for the carbon footprint of different milk producing region so you have the results in crap here and then when you look at that here you realize that they are basically through group so the major a very efficient group compose comprised of Oceania North America Russia and Europe basically and the less efficient group which is basically the rest of the world and then when you look at their these group I mean these results and look at that they can even result then you realize that Canada is among the regions that produce milk with the smallest carbon footprint so the idea is not to say that we're better than than our neighbors the idea just to highlight the fact that we're along the regions where we are producing meals the most effective and the reason for that is that we have access here in Canada to very high quality feed and we have a really high productivity rate so that enables us to actually produce milk very effectively and efficiently some enough and then mental standpoint so another way to look at the graphic is the fact that if you have to produce milk somewhere around the world Canada is definitely an efficient region where you will you can do that so now as a conclusion I think what it's so far what I did was like to present the result of that study for me basically to summarize I mean what else is about how it works and then to present the results but of using this methodology to to measure the performance of an environmental standpoint of producing milk in Canada but I want to bring and link this this discussion back to that brother debate about the impact of of our dairy Theory patterns and the food we eat on the environment because like I said in the introduction you certainly know about I mean this ongoing discussion of the impact on food and and their recommendation that that are coming from from such a from some studies and reports trying to connect health and the environment because I mean more and more studies and reports are being published recently and one a good example of that is the eat instead before that was published in January earlier this year and these reports try to connect like I said the nutritional benefits or impact of some dietary pattern to their animal mental impact or a means against contribution and some of the country these reports are really bold and and and actually pretty strong and for instance in their in their report in the consensus report the authors concluded that the consumption of food such as red meat and sugar will have to be reduced by more than 50% in order to meet the objective of fighting climate change based and that the diet rich in plant based food and with a pure animal versus food should be promoted in order to improve health and and Renauld anus so we see more and more of these reports coming out at the international level with such strong conclusions and recommendations and where is the what's interesting is the fact that by conducting such LC such as the dairy farmers of Canada did in this day but other industries as well it's so a way to contribute to that debate on sustainable diet because I mean it's actually quite legitimate to look at the impact of sustainable diets and products specifically but it's important to keep in mind that this is like I said a very complex reality that means to take into account sound and reliable data and the fact that right now many studies that are being published at this point use data that are not always representative of the actual performance in this case of the Keynesian theory industry but the same would apply to other industries such as chicken or eggs or pork and 24th so right now what happens is that many of those studies are being conducted using international average and data that are not necessarily the per statistic to the reality we find in the different regions or a different sector so here the graphic on this slide highlights this reality there and we see on the on the far left the the carbon footprint used in the England s report to endure model to understand the impact of they say using a theory in their diet and then we realize that they their data is 1.2 kilograms of co2 equivalent when we look at the data we had in Canada so more statistics based on more reliable data then we realize that already in 2011 the footprint was actually not over 1.2 but likely just basically of one kilogram of soot or equivalent and in 2016 this footprint was even lower I'm getting the timeframe using the heat census report which is 2050 it's likely that the footprint of the Canadian milk sectors dairy sector will actually be much much lower so this is where it's so important for an industry such as the Canadian dairy sector to conduct such LCA to make sure that we can provide to researchers in any organization documenting the impact of food and dietary patterns have access to reliable strong and representative data to be able to add to the discussion and sustainable diet because it's important to recognize that of course aggregate raw production and the animal livestock livestock sector in particular is of course under increased public scrutiny regarding the impact on the environment and for very good reasons I mean there are a significant impact in they need to be addressed in order to make to make sure that our food and our system as a whole are most sustainable the thing is at this point we're still in the process of understanding and developing new knowledge and making sure that the science is eating up to up to speed in the way we can actually capture the complexity of those systems before we can make strong and solid recommendations on the data we have and as of now it's so important to have access to strong representative and reliable data to make sure that our conclusions and more importantly our recommendations are correct and as of now it is not yet the case in all situation so in this context this is why revising the LCF Canadian bill such as what year the deer farmers of Canada has been doing over the last few years is so important not I mean that sector but in all the industries to make sure that the industry have access to the right data on the current profile footprint understand the road I mean that they gained over time and make sure that they can develop sound strategy in order to improve the situation of the time and this is just a piece in the puzzle because of course today we thought a lot about the impact of you know production on the environment but of course the environment is just one component one killer of sustainability so one if you want to really capture the complexity of what is really a sustainable food system or a food diet then you make you have to capture all the aspects of cynical development and I think that a good way if that in mind is actually to refer back to the definition of what is what our sustainable diet that was provided and designed by the FAO in 2010 and that organization back in the days defined the sustainable diet as as diets with low and thermicon impact for sure but that also contribute to food and net service or nutrition security and healthy life for present and future generation such diets should also be productive and respectful of biodiversity ecosystems should also be culturally acceptable accessible economically fair and affordable nutritionally adequate 7lt so as you can see when we talk about sustainability we have to keep in mind of course and access through the sound and and reliable data on the under mental impact but we mean not to overlook the impact on the other pillars of sustainability so maybe my closing remarks will be that right now I mean when we try all of us professionals in the industry trying to better understand the impact of I mean producing mills or just like developing use the cynical bias it's important to adopt a systematic interdisciplinary and fine based perspective to make sure that we understand and measure all the impacts of Agriculture on population health and well-being in the environment so this is why it's so important if this complexity in mind so and complexity that I think as well as the exemplified by this figure over there you see on the left on the right on this slide which is provided by an organization which mission is to better understand and capture the definition of sustainability in the agri-food system and as you can see there are many many variables and a lot of interaction between them in that thing this figured exemplifies and it's a good way to understand what kind of mindset we focused on when we want to understand how sustainable a diet is and what variable we need to better document to understand the complexity of that and I think he tells the results is definitely a building block in that overall discussion so again thank you so much for your time and for the remaining time I'll be happy to answer any of your questions great thank you Joe Michelle that was that was really an informative presentation and sure we're all eager now to dig into some of the questions that have been coming in we did that just a quick note we did receive a few questions related to no processing however obviously the information we've presented here through the LCA today is related to on-farm milk production so we're going to keep the focus of our questions on that area so one of the first questions John Michell is done is that you mentioned that we're now producing more milk with less input and fewer cows in Canada and so the question is what's the impact of this extra milk production on the cows themselves for example their welfare that's a very good question and this again exemplifies the fact that when things are all interconnected so of course we can think about the economic profitability of producing something the incremental impact of doing it and what are the impact on the animal welfare so that's that's actually a great question so what I can say is that from the animal so there is a lot there's been a lot of efforts being made on the genetics of the animals over the last many many years now and what we have to realize is that cows nowadays in Canada are much bigger than they used to be like 50 years ago so when we did we talked about the productivity of the animals it's the fact on the on the one hand the animals are are more productive than thousand in there they're different from those that were that existed 50 years ago the other thing as well as the fact that they are being fed in the more in a more optimized fashion so I mean there's a lot of research happening as well to make sure that the animals are being fed in a more optimal optimized way so that when you're producing more milk is a more effective and on the other hand I mean right today we talked a lot about corporate social responsibility yes sorry about sustainability but there is an ongoing discussion as well taking place in Canada about project trust and the corporate social responsibility and how actually producers and livestock producers in particular are treating your animals so there's a lot of it for then actually initiatives taking place especially in the various sectors to make sure that producers are following guidelines the blood by veterinarians together with the government and other practitioners to make sure that the best practices are being adopted to make sure that the animals are healthy and actually a great conditions on in terms of housing and the conditions under which they are basically weird so all that to say that overall this this increase in productivity of course wasn't made and obtained on in a way that was its detrimental on the animal welfare I would say quite the opposite because nowadays there are more and more regulations and policies in place to ensure that the animals especially in the dairy sector are treated in the best way possible great thank you that's that's a great answer I'm really helpful I'm sure it's everybody listening another question that's come in is whether or not there is public access to the LCA report there is a summary available online as for the complete report I will invite you to refer to the other farmers of Canada of the organization you know if there's an opportunity to access the complete report but there is a link online to access a summary which provides basic information that was that presented today great great thank you ok another question that's come in how is the dairy LCA or carbon footprint in comparison to other industries or products so so for example chicken rentals plant-based beverages etc well that's that's a very good question every a good question well it's actually pretty it's harder than we think and we could actually imagine to compare the results together and I'll explain why first of all because when these studies are being conducted usually there's coal so the golden goal is to understand the impact of a product state milk when the chicken guys their LCA their copper indium back up producing one to their gramma then of course we could be attempt to compare one kilogram chicken to one kilogram of milk for instance and then compare the results and say that once they're gone for one to the ground very different the reality is one functional unit is not the same so in many studies what they try to do is to compare kilogram of a specific product but kilogram is present but can we compare the pressing of chickens to the pressing of wheel to Princeton but that's what some organization trying to research at the point that when I get it's tricky because I mean we know that food and any product is more just than their component it's actually a more complex reality so just to answer two questions here is the fact that comparing results on an LCA is something that is equally possible because I mean we can compare results they are clicked quantified and all that but the reality is that we're not necessarily comparing apples to apples it's very complex but that's why right now there are more and more research trying to access the impact not of a strategy or a kilogram but of diet but off because I mean this is how we actually write product as a whole on plate but again this is where we find there is a lot of difficulties and challenges and trying to compare things like that so all that's to say that they are it's right now all the there are many many as ten becomes very depressing then compare products together but this is not the main objective of the studies that are being that are took place as of now and now I will say that there is more and more research trying to develop a more standardized way and it was baseline to compare those proteins and basically those products together because of course there are differences across sectors and product but also differences in where those products are being produced and and how great thank you here is somebody asking for a comment on the following it seems as though it's easy to consider the impact on the environment due to the dairy system we have in Canada it's federally controlled this would be difficult to address in the US where each dairy farmers independent I don't know if that's something you can comment on jean-michele well yeah well that's nothing good question as well and it connects back again to the complexity of the system where their local politics them and regulations out there well I mean the reality is I mean they are LTS taking place in a very Specter pretty much everywhere around the globe but the u.s. embassy also has their own health action with that so I won't comment on the word taking place prouder in different country but the reality is of course it is not only out how you get access to the results but it's how you take action once you get the results in order to improve the situation at the time and again I can comment on the reality in Europe or in the state but for sure I may say that in Canada the way that the sector is organized provide them a lot of leverage in the ability to develop policies and the mental policies in program and maybe in a more structured and in line way when he was an objective or or a commitment again I won't comment under strategy but of course there's no way the earth the industries organized could definitely have an impact on how they can collect information and once they have the information to take action based on that so so with that yes maybe some organizations are on more position another great thank you another one that's just come in what are the factors or the differences of practices that contribute to lower carbon footprints in Europe when compared to North America well like I said in the slide so I want to get I won't get too technical but there's two main focus the main drivers again explaining the impact reduction the carbon footprint when you compare it but why is kind of doing so well when you compare to other regions starts there two main reasons productivity like I said the fact that the animals are mainly healthy they're there they're productive we couldn't a lot of neil giving what they are given the food and all that so that's one reason so active system here and the other reason is the and again on the life cycle perspective for all I mean all the indicators you have to realize that production is one of the main factor explaining and contributing to the purpose in the life so basically if the sector has to work them somewhere it has to work together in collaboration with a grain producers in order to reduce your overall footprint but the key here is the fact that in Canada the most of the feed if not I mean most of the feed it's coming from from being sports domestically and when you look and when you compare that situation to other regions across the globe then you realize that our industry is not contributing to deforestation or other practices that we see elsewhere it is not in America well you have to to basically to cut down forests could you story me land sorry and things like that which will have a huge impact on your corporate perspective so the fact that we are highly efficient in terms of productivity rate will also have a speed that has a lower contribution to the overall footprint than other regions across the globe explain the difference when you look at how what are the reasons why the producing yoga is that we have a better footprint here than other regions okay see see time is moving on but we we do have a couple more questions here one is is there a way to reduce the gas from the cows to reduce their carbon footprint you mentioned that the enteric emissions currently represents almost half of the greenhouse gas emissions on dairy farms and that just as a sequel to that how does the entire Commission compare verses 2011 what for example was the poor also 48 percent in 2011 so while since there's a split on part of the question it's pretty much the same but like I said it's more the intensity writer than the the proportion of the contributors that changed by 2011 I think it was pretty sentiment so pretty much the same thing as for the ways are there ways the cows yes I think they are or they're I would say that they there is a lot of research taking place back to me in order to find ways to do that and again what is completed here is what I mentioned earlier is the fact that all those variables are and they're connected so let's say you may find a way or add an additive which will help reduce the sway of just like using spec numbers their paths that delicious and permitted a conversation of cows but if that additive effect the animal welfare then we have to go back to the drawing board and find a little way to reduce the footprint because the other variable but that's why there is a need for more research and there's a lot of researchers they can take Canada but also elsewhere to find a ways to reuse that that sounds like I said like oh yes there's a lot of effort right now examples but they are a lot of fiber connector okay thank you I see I see we're running out of time here I just wanted to let everyone know that if they're looking for a copy of the LCA report they can communicate directly with us the email address is nutrition at CFC – plc CA I'll repeat that nutrition past the FC – plc CA and and again I'd like to thank you very very much jean-michel for your very interesting presentation and obviously some of the interesting questions that we received as well to all of you on the line before you leave please don't forget to complete the evaluation form and to print the certificate of attendance and on behalf of Dairy Farmers of Canada I want to thank you all very very much for your active participation enjoy the rest of your day

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