Twenty First Century Renewable Energy : Documentary on the Energy of the Future (Full Documentary)

Twenty First Century Renewable Energy : Documentary on the Energy of the Future (Full Documentary)



in an economy burdened by the costs of increasingly scarce oil and natural gas and a planet already feeling the impact of fossil fuel driven climate change the technological revolution of our time is renewable energy and say welcome to the 21st century things are going to be different energy sustainable energy is something that our kids care about and the mainstream public cares about and renewables has to be part of the solution sunlight wind water geothermal heat and plant biomass are all essentially limitless resources and they're all proven technologies that work right here right now the Sun provides the earth with unfathomable amounts of energy in one hour the earth receives more energy from the Sun than the entire human race uses in a year with current technology photovoltaic panels covering 10,000 square miles or about 10% of the land area of Nevada could provide all of the electricity used by the United States although photovoltaics converting the sun's light to electricity was not discovered until the 20th century solar thermal harnessing the sun's heat is an ancient practice perhaps the earliest use of solar thermal technology was the south-facing home ancient cultures including the Anasazi Indians of the American Southwest design their buildings to face south to maximize heat from the Sun which stays low in the southern sky during winter in the summer when the Sun is high in the sky the cliff face that extended over the building provided cooling shade it's still a common design today the Greeks built entire cities laying out the streets so every house could take advantage of sunlight during winter but avoid it during summer now the Romans went one step further and they discovered that clear glass will trap solar heat so they covered the windows with glass they became what the Romans called Helio kamini which mean solar furnaces two millennia later the 19th century equivalent of this technology was born the rooftop solar water heater which traps the sun's rays in a glass collector and rapidly heats up water inside insulated glass pipes at the turn of the 20th century 30% of the homes in Pasadena California used solar water heaters the same concept is used today to cheaply provide hot water to millions even in cold cloudy climates for almost every homeowner heating water is the number one use of natural gas electricity and using the Sun to heat is much cheaper solar thermal energy can also cheaply produce electricity giant solar power plants like this one in California's Mojave Desert don't use photovoltaic panels to convert light into electricity instead mirrors focus solar rays onto a thin absorber tube that runs along the mirrors focal point inside the tube is synthetic oil which is blasted with intense heat like about a thousand degrees centigrade one word of advice never put your hand at the focus of a concentrating mirror because it will just make a immediate hole through your flush the superheated oil boils water into steam which turns turbines the oil then recirculates through the closed loop system in hot dry areas solar thermal plants generate serious megawatts at a price lower than typical grid power in fact solar thermal plants occupying that same 10% section of Nevada could also supply all of the United States electrical needs meanwhile photovoltaic technology is surging ahead into its second century it's come a long way since 1904 when Albert Einstein first proved that light was composed of tiny packets of energy known as photons which could be converted to electricity photovoltaic cells got their first big break in the 1950s thanks to the space race the first T sputnik's that went up they have all this like multi million dollars worth of transistors that went dead in about a week and a half because they were running them on flashlights batteries in the world and then created the u.s. space program solar powered satellites on the other hand proved an instant success photovoltaic panels still power nearly all satellites and space probes within the solar system in this sense the 21st century lifestyle from Global Positioning to global communication is completely dependent on solar energy the US Coast Guard became one of the first earth-based users of photovoltaics powering its remote buoys and weather stations with solar panels wired to batteries in the 1970s and 80s solar panels performed heroically during one of the worst droughts to hit Africa solar power was used to pump water from 40 feet below the parched ground saving many lives in fact probably one of the most valuable uses of photovoltaics today is to provide clean drinking water for the developing world for those already connected to the power grid photovoltaics are becoming more and more viable a home say a two bedroom suburban American home gets enough energy on its roof to power itself once or twice over and it doesn't actually need to be as sunny as you think for solar to work the most successful solar program in the world is actually in Germany and they have less sign in Germany than they do in Seattle for the time being photovoltaic panels are still expensive making solar electricity two to five times the cost of typical grid power but grid-connected homeowners can sell access peak-hour electricity back to the power company at a premium the systems do pay for themselves the payback might be as short as four or five years and in general for residential systems we're looking at 10 to 12 years that doesn't take into account some of the other benefits like for example the protection from rising utility rates or also increased property value up until now the primary cost of solar cells has been the ultra pure silicon needed for the photovoltaic reaction but more than one company wants to change that the portable takes industry is based primarily on wafers of silicon to make high-efficiency solar cells but those wafers themselves are very expensive Nana solar uses thin films of photoactive material instead of those expensive wafers rather than silicon nano solar in palo alto california uses a combination of semiconducting elements so you have copper indium gallium sulfa cell a9 because that's obviously a mouthful we get more work done we just say 6c IGS s the beauty of the material absorbs sunlight very readily so you can make a very thin layer so thin that the absorbing material is assembled on the nano scale then literally print it onto a foil substrate as a photovoltaic ink on this experimental machine the foil moving very slowly but this style of machine can be made to run at tens or even hundreds of meters per minute and because of this these relatively inexpensive machines can be used to make an enormous quantity of low-cost photovoltaic cells thin film solar panels as well as their silicon counterparts can be built right into a building surface such as a roof window glass or in the near future Haight so-called building integrated photovoltaics will drive down the cost of solar electricity even further because you're not buying panels and the infrastructure you're buying it all at once and my lab has been looking at forecasts of getting 20% 25% of total energy from solar by making this ubiquitous material that you just get everywhere the sun's heat also gives rise to the invisible powerful force known as the wind and in the future of energy wind is a force to be reckoned with solar water heaters are mandatory for all residences in Israel other governments are considering similar requirements renewable energy will return on modern marvels tucked among the rolling hills of Central New York is the Fenner wind project owned by NL North America though not the world's biggest wind power project it represents the new thinking and wind energy bigger smarter and fewer wind turbines eliminating the need for dozens of smaller turbines thinner is composed of 20 wind turbines built and maintained by GE Energy each stands 215 feet tall has a rotor 218 feet in diameter a bit longer than the wingspan of a 747 and produces 1.5 megawatts of electricity when you look at the average New York household this wind power project can actually power about 14,000 homes over the course of a year converting wind to electricity begins as the wind flows over the rotors airfoil shaped blades the combination of lift and drag causes the blades to rotate there's a tremendous amount of kinetic energy in the wind and similar to sailing or lifting an aircraft off the ground the wind blade captures that kinetic energy and provides lift and that lift like a propeller is converted into torque the tremendous torque is put to work inside the turbines powerplant 200 feet above the ground the blades collect the energy from the wind and convert that energy from wind energy to mechanical energy transmits it through the main shaft into the gearbox which the gearbox steps it up from about one revolution to 70 revolutions and puts it on the output shaft of the gearbox going into the generator here which then produces power the generator operates between about 850 to 1,400 rpms from the generator the electric current travels down the tower to underground transmission lines and into the power grid the main challenge for wind power is the fact that the wind is not blowing at all sites at all times the solution is to diversify the locations of wind turbines and guide the turbines to the wind computer controls can turn the entire turbine up to 360 degrees to catch the prevailing wind these controls also direct individual blades to pitch in to optimum wind position each axis can operate independently of each other all the blades pitch to the same degree that they're told to pitch to and maintain that each turbine will come online on its own it doesn't need any human interface to do it technicians are needed to perform maintenance on the turbine and to change a lightbulb on occasion those with a fear of heights need not apply I have the benefit of having probably the best office window in Madison County I mean if you look out the top it's it's absolutely gorgeous up here clusters of wind turbines are often called a wind farm and in the case of Fenner New York it really is a farm the land is owned by local farmers like Donna Griffin for landowners going green is a good way to make some green we have a lease with them where they pay on the production of each turbine it's just another crop that we harvest it's much easier than harvesting our other crops the wind is free as long as the turbine is turning we know we're gonna get paid from New York to North Dakota American farm lands and Badlands are turning into windswept power plants the United States has some of the best wind resources in the world just to calibrate you North and South Dakota theoretically have enough wind to power the whole country the challenge is tapping that and transmission and distribution but if you look at the center of the country with wind resources are tremendous if you look at the coastlines the wind resources are tremendous farming and wind power have a long history together in fact it was on the farm that wind power saw most of its advances the famous Dutch Tower Mills introduced about 13 90 saw many innovations over the centuries including leading-edge airfoil sections on its light wooden blades which dramatically improve the art of aerodynamic lift these pre-industrial dynamos were mainly used for drainage and grinding grain into flour in the late 19th and early 20th centuries small windmills and American farms were the first to employ a large number of light efficient steel blades which produced significant torque even in low winds some of these machines were also the first to convert wind to electricity in the last century we had a lot of wind power installed in the California West to power water pumps for agriculture and for cattle and so we actually started a lot of this country with alternative energy it was mainstream then but they dropped off the radar screen as the prices of oil and fossil fuel became so inexpensive the new era of wind technology began in the early 1980s when Zhaan systems began putting 50 kilowatt wind turbines tiny by today's standards in the hills of Tehachapi California during the 1980s we went from 50 60 kilowatts to a couple hundred kilowatts by the end of the decade during the 1990s it was 550 kilowatts and then we went to 750 and then by the end of the decade we were at one and a half megawatts the company also implemented variable speed turbines which allowed the rotors to accelerate and generate additional energy during a violent gust of wind advances such as these along with smarter computer controls and lighter cheaper and more aerodynamic rotor designs have made the cost of wind powered electricity competitive with that of natural gas and even cold wind power is experiencing exponential growth several European nations will soon be getting 20% or more of their electricity through wind in June of 2006 the US Department of Energy announced it would also aim for a target of 20% right now the figure stands at less than 1% as engineers continue to make wind turbines more resilient and cost-efficient you can expect them to get even bigger as always the bigger the rotor the more energy that can be captured some of the biggest turbines are reaping the massive wind harvest on the oceans there are ideas on the board for bigger turbines in excess of 5 megawatts 6 megawatts to go offshore out in the ocean we see many technical opportunities to continue to push wind technology even beyond where we've pushed it today we are making progress we are the future we are reducing our dependence upon oil and we're trying to save the environment the same time it's a plus this is a viable technology its economic it's proven you know what more do we need to know wind is certainly a hot technology but so is this geothermal energy hot enough to power a small nation chyna ii to the US and total wind potential plans to produce 30 gigawatts of wind power by 2020 enough to power between 13 and 30 million Chinese households renewable energy will return on modern marvels a small island nation bringed with volcanoes and perched just below the Arctic Circle has emerged as a world leader in renewable energy by tapping into their bounty of fire and water the people of Iceland have become nearly energy independent abundant rainfall and glacial runoff provide hydroelectric power which represents 80% of the nation's electricity this water also seeps into underground aquifers and runs head-on into magma heated rock which sits close to the surface in Iceland this collision results in geysers fumaroles smoke events and the renewable source known as geothermal energy Icelanders have used geothermal hot water for washing clothes and bathing for hundreds of years but it wasn't until the mid 20th century that engineers began tapping the resource on a scale large enough to replace costly imported fossil fuels to us in Iceland its native it's our it's indigenous source it is much cheaper than other sources as you know and it's a environmental friendly so I think there's a lot of benefits geothermal water brings heating in hot water to ninety-three percent of the nation's homes geothermal steam generates 17 percent of Iceland's electricity all tolled geothermal provides over 50 percent of Iceland's total energy needs Venecia Beller powerplant is a dual use facility it's HAP's geothermal energy to provide electricity as well as hot water both end products begin here in one of 15 more holes drilled as far as 6000 feet below the service the bore holes well is encased in cement to a depth of about 2,000 feet below that the well is lined with perforated metal to let in steam and hot water which rush toward the surface under brake pressure a borehole this chance by itself you don't need to pump it when you put a very powerful set of a lovesong on the top to control it the mixture of steam and hot water is sent to the separation module from here the water and steam take separate paths the steam heads for the demister to remove moisture that could damage the turbines excess water vapor is vented into the air along with trace amounts of other greenhouse gases over a year this power plant will release 12,000 tons of greenhouse gases what a coal-fired plant releases in five days geothermal power plant ersity works exactly like you're using coal or oil and turns a turbine except this is a natural steam for eletricity production you're using actually the pressure of steam not the heat itself the steam turns one of four turbines at a rate of three thousand rpm the turbines combine to generate a hundred and twenty megawatts of electricity which is sent on to Reykjavik Monsieur Villa is a high temperature geothermal zone meaning the water below the surface is hot enough to dissolve sulfur and other corrosive minerals for this reason it can't be used directly in the populations heating system instead the power plant uses the geothermal water to heat cold fresh water pumped in from a nearby aquifer in the first stage of heating the water excess steam from the electricity producing turbines is used to bring the cold water up to 125 degrees 125 5 that is not hot enough for us so we have to heat the water a little bit more up to 86 degrees centigrade so it's about one hundred eighty seven Fahrenheit and we do that in heat exchanger inside the heat exchanger the geothermal brine rapidly brings the fresh water to its one hundred eighty seven degree target temperature the now scalding fresh water is pumped into the pipeline as it climbs uphill and from there the water flows after the pipeline by gravity to regulate and the heat loss on the way is less than two degrees centigrade is 1.8 so you could say that the pipeline is well the installation is almost perfect after providing hot water and space heating this geothermal lifeline has enough heat left over to melt snow on the winter sidewalks as it passes under the streets it also allows hundreds of greenhouses to grow fresh fruits and vegetables even the geothermal brine finds other uses unique in the world of power plants the effluent from one Icelandic geothermal plant actually provides the warm mineral-rich waters of the Blue Lagoon a hugely popular spa the Icelandic government has set an ambitious long-term goal convert all the nation's cars and even its fishing fleet to run on clean burning hydrogen produced by geothermal and hydropower if that day comes all of Iceland's energy needs will be met with renewables Iceland is far from the only place on earth with rich geothermal resources generally where there's volcanic activity there's geothermal energy one study estimates that eight hundred and sixty five million people in volcanic regions from Japan to Idaho could get their electricity through geothermal that's 17 percent of the world's population but there's another form of geothermal energy less exotic yet very effective that any homeowner can tap into it's known as ground source geothermal nearly everywhere on earth about eight feet below the surface the air is a steady cool temperature between 50 and 75 degrees to capture that air a trench is dug below the building and tubing laid in an antifreeze liquid circulated by a small electric pump passes through the tubes in the summer the liquid carries heat out of the building and mild temperatures in in the winter the warmer ground air heats the liquid which flows into the colder building it's in effect an underground heat exchanger is the prices of heating oil and natural gas continue to go up more people will start to look down and like all renewable energy sources geothermal will be there waiting renewable technology clearly has what it takes to power the grid and heat our homes but what will it have to say about the future of the automobile from ethanol crops to electric cars it's a heated debate the first plant to generate electricity using geothermal energy is in Tuscany it began producing electricity in 1904 and today provides power for about a million Italian households renewable energy will return on modern marvels at first glance it's a typical auto repair shop but love craft biofuels in Los Angeles is hardly typical give them three hours and a few hundred dollars and they'll convert your diesel car to run on 100% all-american vegetable oil and they're also capable of running on biodiesel mineral oil kerosene transmission fluid motor oil not that you'd want to run on all of those but they're capable after the conversion petroleum which accounts for 30% of the world's energy use is growing scare surveyed a so it's not surprising to see customers lining up to switch to another kind of oil one that's renewable for many Diesel's the conversion process simply requires adding a special high flow filter and a heat exchanger which uses coolant heated by the engine to raise the vegetable oil to the right temperature and if you get that balance right the engine runs great it even can run better than on diesel the best fuel is actually used vegetable oil since the frying process has cooked out any embedded water so if you work a deal with the restaurant pick it up for free you're saving them a fortune and you're saving yourself a fortune that's because the restaurant avoids its usual oil disposal fee and the driver gets free fuel of course new vegetable oil works just about as well cottonseed seems to run the best but a soybean is the easiest to find it runs great and it's the cheapest so we're really advocates of soybean oil it can bail out farmers it keeps the money in the in the US economy and and there's already an infrastructure in place while the idea of running a car on cooking oil may hold a certain comic appeal a vegetable oil fuel is part of the solution to a deadly serious problem nearly 20% of the world's global warming greenhouse gases come directly from automobiles in addition to being renewable biofuels from vegetable oil to biodiesel to ethanol have at least two environmental benefits over gasoline they release fewer and less toxic emissions and more importantly their carbon emissions can potentially be offset by the carbon taken out of the atmosphere when the biofuel was a plant biodiesel which is made from a plant fatty oils and ethanol an alcohol fuel distilled from a plant sugars are the hot biofuels of the moment but they're also straight out of early automotive history Rudolf diesel built his engine to run on peanut oil Henry Ford designed the Model T to run on ethanol since then the onset of petroleum and gasoline came into play and it was a lot cheaper to do the Neth one all we weren't nearly as efficient producing it each new discovery of cheap domestic oil pushed these early biofuels to the margins and now we're doing almost a full circle turn back to to go to what we were utilizing in the first place in the u.s. the most talked about ethanol feedstock is corn grain for corn grain ethanol yields only slightly more energy than the amount of fossil fuels needed to harvest to distill it for every unit of petroleum that you put into the production process you get 1.3 units of fuel ethanol energy out so it's slightly positive but it's not as good as it could be by contrast the sugarcane ethanol used in Brazil yields 8 units of energy for every unit of fossil energy put in not only is the feedstock bursting with fermentable sugars but the rest of the plant is burned cleanly to power the fermenting and distilling the result is a major reduction in carbon emissions and dirt-cheap ethanol for Brazilian drivers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden Colorado researchers aim to hit similar levels of efficiency by extracting sugars from the entire plant which includes the so called cellulosic biomass corn farmers will be happy to know that one of the more promising crops is corn stover it's the stalks the husks the corn cobs leaves every part of the corn plant aside from the grain that's not harvested when you harvest the grain so oftentimes it's left laying out in the field there's not a lot of current uses for it the hard part is converting the tough cellulose fibers into sugars using bio engineered enzymes but the payoff could be tremendous with biomass we're talking ratios on the order of ten to one so for every unit of fossil energy or petroleum that you put into the process you get ten units of fuel energy out the back in the tall prairie grass known as switchgrass may prove an even more powerful biofuel crop not only can you get more tonnage of biomass out of an acre of land with this type of material then you can say with corn stover but there are a lot of other benefits as well it doesn't take nearly the amount of water or fertilizer to make it grow it's very fast growing you can harvest it once maybe even twice in a year and has a wide geographic range across which you can grow in North Dakota all the way down to Texas to the southeast my own fuels aren't the only way for renewable energy to clean up the automobile there's also the power grid this is a plug-in hybrid like other hybrids it runs on a gasoline engine and an electric motor powered in part by the momentum of braking but Felix Craver in the California cars initiative have taken these already fuel-efficient cars in this case a Toyota Prius a step further they've beefed up the battery pack and converted it to run on electricity taken straight from any 120 volt outlet plugging this coin is really easy I timed it once it's about nine seconds all you really do is you take that plug it into here 120 volts in your garage nothing special and you're done the gasoline is used only as a range extension fuel under 35 miles per hour not a drop is used above that speed the gas and electric motors combine or an average of 100 miles per gallon and the range of this car is unlimited because it's also a gasoline car this is a car that you get to plug in and you can plug it in whenever it's convenient you're not worried Oh am I going to run out of power cars that get 100 miles per gallon and more will be necessary if the world's farmlands are to grow fuel as well as food with current mpg standards there's simply not enough acreage to supplant the world's oil habit without endangering its food supplies in 2006 the brilliantly simple plug-in prototypes greatly impressed senators and representatives from both sides of the aisle and congresswoman introduced me and I stood up and I said I'm here and actually I brought my infrastructure with me and that got a big laugh because this is the only infrastructure their car need of course electricity today is generated largely by fossil fuels but plug-in proponents envision an increasingly green power grid to charge the car's battery and cellulosic biofuels to fill the tank there are some corporations that are talking about installing solar carports where they have photovoltaic cells on the roofs of their parking garages and people with plug-in hybrids or pure electric vehicles can plug-in during the day while biofuels and plug-in hybrids surged ahead a new way of renewable technology is coming in with the time the estimated ethanol yield for switchgrass is 1150 gallons per acre currently sugarcane yields about 662 gallons per acre and corn grain 354 gallons renewable energy will return on modern marvels despite the fact that the oceans cover 70% of the planet service we've only begun to tap them directly as an energy source but these marine powerhouses may one day unlock the door to clean limitless energy hydroelectric power was the great renewable energy source of the 20th century and it will continue to provide gigawatts of power but with most of the world's rivers already dammed the future of hydropower will come from the sea of the various technologies to capture the ocean's energy a tidal barrage is the closest in design to traditional hydropower the barrage is essentially a dam collecting water from high tide until there's sufficient potential energy for power generation then forcing the water through turbines when released during low tide the world's largest and oldest tidal barrage at Loren's france began producing power in 1966 today it still powers 240,000 homes a more recent technology known as tidal stream power uses propeller like turbines to capture the kinetic energy of underwater currents and that's one that we could do in all manner of places because the tidal flow of course takes place everywhere on earth and harvesting those could be done quite well and doesn't even have to be at the surface the issue though is that the marine environments pretty tough to deal with there's corrosion parts being banging back and forth often the cost of managing those reserve repairs can be quite large but we're seeing new work on that much of the work is taking place in the British Isles where companies such as marine current turbines are thinking big sinking massive pilings into the ocean floor and letting the turbines do their work and the amount of energy you get out of a turbine is proportional directly to the density of the fluid that flows back and forth and so a water turbine has several hundred times the power of a watt of an air turbine wave power is an even newer technology yet it may hold the most promise of all since wave power can be captured anywhere on the ocean in this design a 450 foot chain of pipes connected by hinged joints all sit semi-submerged on the ocean each motion of the waves is resisted by hydraulic rams located in the hinges this action pumps high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors which drive electrical generators electrical transmission lines also keep the floating power plant tethered to the ocean floor a Scottish company ocean power delivery has installed a successful two point five megawatt wave farm off the coast of Portugal a wave farm occupying less than a half a square mile of ocean would generate 30 megawatts of power or enough for 20,000 British homes 472 square miles of ocean could power each of the United Kingdom's 24 and a half million households each region of the earth has its own renewable sources from the vast wind potential of North Dakota to the solar mother lode that waits in the Sahara when you put them all together one thing becomes clear renewable energy offers a global solution to global problems we honestly have the potential now to think about flipping things from being a fossil fuel driven economy with little bits of renewables to being a renewable energy driven economy with fossil fuels filling in the background and that's a world that really no one thought possible only a decade or two ago the technology works but a renewable future also requires political will and a new way of thinking in which a farm harvest wind a harvest yields fuel and a rooftop becomes a power plant

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15 thoughts on “Twenty First Century Renewable Energy : Documentary on the Energy of the Future (Full Documentary)

  1. Anyone watching this vid for school. Who wants to learn about how machines work, just give us the basic information that we need on renewable energy

  2. According to Parker’s article, published March 8, “Infrasound (inaudible) and low-frequency (audible) noise (slowly vibrating sound waves collectively referred to as ILFN) produced by Industrial-scale Wind Turbines (IWTs) directly and predictably cause adverse human health effects. The sonic radiation tends to be amplified within structures, and sensitivity to the impact of the resonance increases with continuing exposure.”
    “The primary pathway of turbine assault on human health is no mystery,” wrote Parker. “The Israeli army has used low-frequency sound pulses as high-tech crowd control for years. People are made nauseous and confused, with blurred vision, vertigo, headaches, tachycardia, heightened blood pressure, pain and ringing in the ears, difficulties with memory and concentration, anxiety, depression, irritability, and panic attacks.”- Psychologist Helen Schwiesow Parker, Ph.D

  3. NUCLEAR FUSION NEEDS TO COME ASAP!!!! THAT WILL REVOLUTIONIZE THE WORLD!!! I HOPE THAT ITER BECOMES SUCCESSFUL!!!

  4. best thing to do would to put absolutely gigantic solar farms around the world and power the world as it rotates producing power as each area goes to night while other areas are day light it can be done with energy conservation in mind my area gets 4 hrs of solar peak I would need 33 panels at 300 watts each or more to power my house of 900-1100 kWh per month depending on season

  5. Given the massive push towards alternative energy use and development in recent years, will the cost of these alternatives drop below that of fossil fuels while there are still substantial reserves left in the ground? Or will that day not come until there isn't enough petroleum left to sustain the output we have today?

  6. Hi,
    I know I'll sound crazy but here it goes. I believe the Big Oil Companies have bought the patents for the cold fusion and everything else. Once they can no longer make money from the oil fields. Then we'll have all these renewable energy available to us. Of course, it will be introduced and sold to the public by the Big Oil Companies.
    Peace:)

  7. Replacing fossil fuels with renewable sources of electricity or heat is only part of what has to be done if Global Warming is to be averted. We also need to reduce our energy consumption by a considerable amount. Insulation of homes/factories will go a significant distance in achieving this, and more needs to be done to make insulation more efficient/cheaper. Small scale generation (solar PV panels on rooftops helps, as does gsp and asp. Even individual water turbines can assist) but the long-term solution has to be minimisation of use by everyone. Quite a challenge, but one we must conquer soon.

  8. Thanks New School. I hope this new thought and new will for renewable energy will be applied. A new age has “breathed a new life into the body of mankind, and infused a new spirit into the whole creation. It is for this reason that the world hath been moved to its depths, and the hearts and consciences of men been quickened.” – Abdul-Baha

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