"Urinary System" | Anatomy & Physiology with Educator.com

"Urinary System" | Anatomy & Physiology with Educator.com

hi welcome back to educator calm this is the lesson on the urinary system the functions of the urinary system is not just as simple as making urine and getting rid of it I mean that is the primary function it's the removal of metabolic wastes that's really what urine contains solid waste of course would be in the fecal matter which is part of the digestive system in terms of getting rid of it but here is is all about filtering blood and getting rid of metabolic wastes out of your bodily fluids in addition to that you have the regulation of blood volume and blood pressure your kidneys actually secrete hormones in response to how much blood is flowing through them the the pressure either the you know lack of fluid or too much fluid and that has an effect on your blood pressure and blood volume it also regulates plasma concentrations of various electrolytes various minerals like sodium potassium chloride etc because it's going to get rid of more of those or less of those through urine depending on how much you have and it also helps to stabilize blood pH in addition to getting rid of stuff like sodium or hanging on to it hanging on to H+ or getting rid of H+ these hydrogen ions that has an effect on pH in addition bicarbonate ions which has an effect on the alkaline levels so if you know enough about pH you know hanging on to this would actually make the blood slightly more acidic getting rid of this would actually make the blood slightly more basic and the the normal pH for blood and human body is seven point four on the pH scale that's slightly basic it also conserves valuable nutrients you want to hang on to certain things in your bloodstream and not get rid of them and that comes down to kidney function so we look at the different organs and tissues of the urinary system there are four main players here's a little drawing of it you've got the kidneys of course they look like kidney beans this is the left kidney this is the right kidney the left kidney is ever so slightly higher the right kidney is a little bit lower because of the liver kind of hanging down over it so you know it's normal born with two kidneys there are the ureters which of these tubes that take recently made urine out of the kidneys to a temporary storage spot known as the urinary bladder just calling it the bladder is not sufficient in anatomy because there's also the gall bladder so you want to specify that this is the urinary bladder and then the urethra the urethra is that tube that finally takes urine out of the body and it is of course longer in males shorter and females I'll discuss that more later all right so when we look at kidneys these amazing organs that actually make urine you do have two kidneys on either side of the spine between the thoracic vertebrae at the bottom of the thoracic curvature so number-12 where your last ribs are found and down to about the third lumbar vertebra which means that they're only partially covered by your ribcage just just the top portion has some ribs going just posterior to it and your kidneys actually are very much a posterior organ there's this term kidney shot if someone you know hits you right back they're right under the ribcage and that kind of impact could definitely damage kidneys that happens in contact sports often but the left kidney is slightly superior slightly higher to the right one they are held in place by surrounding connective tissue and that surrounding connective tissue includes the peritoneum and it's it's a nice wrapping around abdominal organs that that keeps them in place and there's other neighboring organs that help keep them in place there reddish brown the reddish nosov course because of the high blood flow there's a lot of blood going to your kidneys every second of the day they're about 10 centimeters long five and five centimeters wide and about three centimeters thick with a mass of about 150 grams each so here are the the major parts let's label these so the renal cortex renal cortex you see that right here as with the adrenal glands or any other organ that has the term cortex that means the superficial outer part of it so the the renal cortex you're gonna see a lot going on in the next few slides in terms of how the filtration process gets started the renal medulla or medulla some people pronounce it that way that's a bit deeper just like with the adrenal medulla so you can see that these little areas that kind of look triangular that's really where most of the module is going on and those are called renal pyramids because they do look pyramidal triangular so here's a renal pyramid we don't pyramid we don't pyramid so those make up most of that medullary layer in the kidneys and this is of course a cross-section a frontal section or coronal section through a kidney from the outside you would not see the pyramids and you know seeing that medulla so you'd have to cut into it to see them and then you have these two areas they're each calluses or calyxes major and minor so once you have development of urine it comes out of the medullary area into what are called minor calyxes and all of the minor calyx is lead to major calyxes these are the major calyx is here and then it goes into what's called the renal pelvis so the renal pelvis may use yellow for the calyxes and here these are the calyxes and then the renal pelvis is this collecting area right in here and this other term the hilum is kind of that exit region of the kidney through which the renal pelvis empties into the ureters so renal pelvis is actually at the the medial side of the kidneys because the kidneys kind of point towards each other and the renal pelvis –is feed into the aerators which of course then go into the bladder

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