Von Thunen Model of Agricultural Location: Fundamentals of Geography

Von Thunen Model of Agricultural Location: Fundamentals of Geography



and welcome to the recession we will be talking about the various model especially the most important model that is the ones within model and then we will be talking about the analyst extension right to the box in its model now before we try to understand the toy he said one module in propounded we must be very sure of the basic fundamentals in the fourth inning so basically before we start let's have a brief look a bomb Porto's confidence model about and what was his main focus so forth yunnan basically propounded the model in 1826 in his book the isolated state his main focus across the torii was based on two fundamental things first is the focus on cost factors and ii was maximizing the profits now when we when we talk about agricultural geography a reduction is basically governed by three basic factors that is the environment you have the people and then finally you have the economic factors okay of these three one tune and considered only economic factors as a major factor that affect the agricultural production or the one that potential production is any region so on the basis of this he use these two things as the basic trade area to find out the location of the market which is best suitable his ideas were be is mainly on the works of Adam Smith and Ricardo his theory was deterministic in nature he gave and took simply Douglas means he gave kind of inclusive findings that this is the things that could happen it was a long metal theory and based on a partial equilibrium approach okay so now let's understand the various assumptions that we took into consideration while we like this theory he assumed that there is a homogeneous area marketed like the center of the agriculture area so this is the egregious really at the center of the market Cindy is the sole market and I give the third area is the truth supplier so you have a soul region piece if demand means and soul region which is supply base he said only transportation form that existed was off through the road lines and he said the transport is directly proportional to distance so as the distance increases the transport cost of the travel cost would increase labor cost are equal throughout the day we leave the periphery or the center of the city the market prices are fixed farmer is an economic man his main motive would be to maximize his profits there is no money manipulation or no market changes in the region and there is a kind of a static are stable ignoring within the system so these for the basic assumptions that they took into consideration to propound history now what was the basic aim of his model his basic aim of the model was to find how when vomit agricultural land use varies with distance so I will just remind you Strange's for distance that was his first question if I am moving away from the city sentence will the pattern of Agriculture change and why will it change then he talked about a density of company and he said a density of crop production decreases with distance and finally he also said that type of intensity or type of land use also change the sprint distance okay so these one has three basic aims that we try to find out the wrist and the radius to the concept of his fury that he followed on now he said welcome well farmer is trying to maximize the profit for three fundamental things you would take into consideration first is the transport cost second it is the price of land and third is the profitability to market okay so these were the three fundamental things that a farmer would consider because he wants to maximize his profit he will see he has not to be is thought to be an extra transport cost the price of the land is appropriate and it is near to the market so these would be the means basic criterias that I found when taken to concentration so these are the basic criterias these would be again the media was that we would be talking pure in the session so now let's go on to the basic principle that was propounded by for human so he basically work on the concept of locational Trent somehow did it try to calculate the location around location rent is basically profit of a crop on the part of a location so for example I am growing V on the location X what would be my profit in that region would be the location okay so rotational rent he said that can be calculated by a simple formula that is remaining for a second crop minus the cost of production and transportation so reppin to minus the total cost that to and be any good with a mukesh tournament so I have two unique examples here one is barley and another is tomato tomato has I a market price because his hand right here as you can see is faculty and also the transport cost of tomato is high because it's kind of more perishable crops so you need to take it very carefully damage to it is much more in case of no matter is compared to mine okay so now I'm going to try to understand how the things we so we have the selling price cost of production and local cost of transportation for both of them now we are trying to find out the locational rent for valet at farm ii the center one be Etsy okay so then tourism market and you have a farm in either the next is 15 miles away and the nice farm seat is 30 miles away so the location rent for farm a would be for viola would be 100 – 20 that is a cost of production plus since inside the market itself cost of transport would be zero so you have a TS location already for PharmD it would be hundred minus 20 is the cost of production again that would remain the same promptly and then you have transport recorders to per mile and since you have 15 miles to go is 2 into 15 plus 30 so you have hundred minus 20 plus 30 plus 50 so you have 50 and locational rent for farm scene would be hundred minus 20 are again plus you have 30 minus and at the rate of coops so 2 into 30 then 60 plus 20 is 80 hundred minus 80 is 20 so the location rent for farm a would be 80 you have 80 then 50 and finally 20 now let's calculate it for farm B for location rent for tomatoes for farm a B and C so it would be 120 minus 25 plus 0 that's 80 to 95 okay so you have 95 here then you have 120 minus 25 plus 3 into 15 to 3 into 15 is 45 45 Plus relief is a baby so you have a game yeah the Lamar one will be minus 25 plus 13 2 3 that's 90 90 plus 25 s 105 so again were Affinia so buy this printer for Vienna in the rules we are right you can delay that various cost now since we have calculated the cost he left we can see what we can see here is for the farm nice audience 55 so you have 55 here and 15 here now this is what is the matter so I can see it's best to grow the meadow okay at a point E or the farm in here so farm a the location of rent for the mangoes is higher so it's very better to grow tomatoes near in the market and far away from the rum cake it would be better to grow by date because value would be Ida I am it so since we know the rate is higher for palm see what would be winter here would be fine okay so this is out again put it location L n so here you can see else this is the since from the market okay and this is the profit so profit is highest for this crop for land use – its decreasing for land use 3 and finally black is 4 so I see a movie distance from the market increases the profit from the market also decreases and there is a kind of distance to kill phenomena that takes place ok so this is the first principle we try to understand so basically if you are very high transport cost okay what might happen is the total line would be less okay and right it is usually higher near the main market so as you can see in both cases 80 and 95 so locational rate is higher near the main market that is funky and as you are moving away from the main market the location and starts to decrease so these were the basic principles on which he gave responsive them is concept included two basic models so the two models that were included in his concepts were the intensity zone model and the crop model so here we were trying to understand both of the models so let's first work with the intensity model so intensity model by dancing in density model he tries to focus on if the same crop the intensity of cultivation decreases as we move away from the city okay so if I am moving away from city in the intensity of crop production or decrease so Fauss which are close to the city or near the main market what would happen the density there would be intensive cultivation okay then there will be higher location rent as we find found out in the last slide and you are selling the produce at less cost because we are not bearing the transportation cost okay the second model he gave was based on the crop type so graph type also varies with distance so near the mean market people have kind of perishable crop okay which you don't have to transport a lot okay so the crop type will depend upon the cost of production okay and the production cost also varies with the product so if the product is perishable the production cost would be higher and so on so now based on these two concepts he defined the isolated state model this was later modified by mu job refers here so we will first understand the isolated a statement that was propounded by through name and he propounded the model in form of concentric circles so he said the center was the market or the city center next to it the first zone is the monkey gardening and milk production is basically focused on perishable goods you have high location rate it's kind of intensive agriculture okay and these products cannot be held at transportation cost when human game history there was no girl of refrigeration of preservation of perishable products so we focus basically on that each products are perishable and should be located very close to the main market they sector he talked about was firewood and number production or the selfie culture so sentence theory was prior to the industrialization coming up he said what was required was volt so what is very essential for eating and cooking purposes so it should be very clear to the market gardens next was the region with the crop without fellow so it's kind of arable farming so you are growing grains for bread these gains are basically higher shelf life so you can grow them away from the main market the next reason is the fallow head are the pastures this pasture and three field systems basically on the regions which promote extensive agriculture okay so these promote extensive agriculture and since of these reason you have a lot of animals and animals can walk to the main market this is the idæan region for extensive agriculture with like I was talking and finally is the livestock farming or you can say the region of wilderness a lot outside that it is the consider there is a part is so you do not have any agriculture because a cable chain in that region would not be profitable so there is no viticulture so this was the basic zones of isolated state model that is propounded by two men later geographers said that if from a means that we this is located through through a river there is a river flowing of it okay so this ma which I am doing in red is the river so the jungle first Ranger said the city instead of moving into a concentric circular pattern going to start from develop along the river so all the market would kind of develop around the river so you have the main market here that would end up around the river okay then you have the main market here that would grow along the river and so on slowly and gradually there would be sub sentence emerging into the region so this was a kind of modification of the original through nine model now this unit model was applied to benighted States of America so here is the basic model that is applied to United States of America he said the West the West sorry lady schools understand yo yog what most of Washington region would happen ad in vegetable school you would hamper constituting zones and the reason in here to the California the West Coast would only be for us so the fact that the category included was New York is the only market in that region okay crops are ranked by means of friend so these have to pay very high location rank and there is a no climatic variation while in the modification he included the concept of climatic variation so he said there is a difference between the climate of north and south still you have the South here a north here since the climate means you have the minutes running it into the north um direction as well as the east-west direction so then their gains in the comes in the modification of the bond Finan story now history was basically a kind of graphical representation along with mathematical calculations that we did for a location rate so is to do anything who goes down graphic mathematics now what we are trying to understand here is because he gave so many theories concept there was a lot of criticism that came into force for a Security's the first and foremost column criticism was that he has opened the region is universal planing the labor cost is same so all his assumptions are not always true that's the first and foremost criticism T : agriculture list of people who are doing agriculture as operators he said that operate a lesson plan the Lord are always not in a position to take an optimum decision they are not good decision makers ok they can make choices based on their personal interests sometime they mean whatever is not to seek returned from the land on base they can have other criterias or evolution of land into mind what we did was a reinvention of the Ricardo model on rent although Ricardo was a contemporary to him but he was not aware of the Ricardo's economic concept by he gave his duty his concept is considered to be a kind of outdated and today's scenario because in today's negative you cannot say that a city is growing into a concentric function also his main application is based on commercial agriculture pattern which is true for North America and Western Europe but not throughout the world because most of the agricultural regions are subsistence based and they are grown for self-sufficiency rather than commercial purposes he did ignored knew about the technological advancements that are taking place into the region ok so he had again shortcomings of the cognitive models and he did not include the changes that came into that were the form of transportation and refrigeration so later on the modification of humans model when we talked about the navigable river and independent on the river was not given faithfulness he did not new the concept of refrigeration ok then he said firewood is important for heating and cooking but later on due to industrialization what was not that important for cookie then there was a global market that is coming up so these changes definitely were his head back or a basic criticism for through this story now all the children was criticized a lot and through history had created click entities so let us understand enough of the main applications of this theory so it's basically applied to the complex subject of agriculture in geography it's so complex that you trying to simplify the concept okay it's applicable it all is clear I can say it is applicable at the cities and it's applicable at the street and the level of a state or a nation although his theories have drawbacks but that provided the v4 game theory to come up to help farmers solve individual problems okay and from what his vision making about farmers so his theory and great applicability there it was one of the first theories on agriculture patterns using economic point of view as we discussed in the standing we can classify agricultural land on sea bases environment people and economic factors so his was the first theory that considered economic factors or economic patterns history was much more scientific than the previous jungle first he also tried to incorporate the rural urban fringe because he gave the zone of built ugliness okay so he knew that there is a range beyond the urban area which would be a kind of rural Arabic French later on and he also tried to explain the farmers behavior or as a farmer himself he tried to explain that what would be the optimal thought that a farmer would have for production purposes okay so farmer would basically in and the ghost he is bearing and he will try to maximize his profit so that case is through he was having good applications but later on there were modifications for the theory this first and foremost qualification was propounded by Alonso so Allen's Oh basically work on urban settings so as we can see here Alonso gave the wind red function okay so under the wind light function what we tried to do was in 1964 he gave the concept in his book location and values what are you trying to explain here was the city center or the market city that was propounded by through Ninh could be considered as a CBD of the central business district in an urban area and since it can be considered as a central business district in a – Kenya you can talk about bit prices or the rent prices we know as we move away from the city the Ryan decreases okay then you have a little bit changes so he walked on to the bid price curve okay so you get this formula event price curve very same the total household income is a resultant of the rate per unit length at a distance D at the amount of length then you have it is added to the transportation cost with the distance and is the summation of the price of goods and the amount of course so this was the pretend function that was given back and in so and I will enter also talked about that this very function is basically changing to the land price situation so for example this is the land price situation Hanks it would go tangent so the midline curve would be changing to the land rises structure and households also commute to work from from to and from the Seelye so commuting was another family that was included band so so he basically what you try to do we try to include a lot more behind us and through the game and history and that is much hompless because children gave us through in 1826 where it was kind of pre industrialization era okay so there was no industries and nothing when he gave us Chile and when I let them give the extension a modification for this period was 1964 so it was kind of post industrialization and enough it is all urban development never happens it is very giveth worried so included lot of parameters then commuting increase in bill price rate they also knew about the changes in the models so better transportation facilities that were included in the model and also we try to include the developments and technologies so that is a kind of refrigeration and other stuff so as Chris Mitchell was basically a kind of modification to the Truman's model both in theory trying to explain the land use the language was basically based on the business locations and it was similar to the household location extent we talked about okay and the main motive as we discussed was maximization of profit and working of the cost of production and the cost of transportation so then moves to prison transport costs and maintain the production cost so that the location of rent is not increased so at a very high rate so when this recover the way is to the theory on agriculture land use models who can enjoin decision is still room for more sessions and industrial cleaning along with 200 have a good

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16 thoughts on “Von Thunen Model of Agricultural Location: Fundamentals of Geography

  1. ma'am u r going great job.thank u .ur explanation is v profitable
    can u plz tel me frm wher to study abt methods of cultivation in ur lectures

  2. mam I am pursuing my post graduation in geography and for doing Ph.D i want to go to Europe…
    mam will you please guide me for achieving my goal…..
    please do help me mam…

  3. mam please make a video on august losch profit maximization theory…. my exams are in april and i desperately need that video as only through your videos i get a clear knowledge about theories.

  4. Thank you for your videos.. they have made understanding all the geography topics so easy. Keep doing good work.👍

  5. mam can u please make a simple short video on OLOF JONNASON agricultural model…modification of von thunen…..its very urgent,….u can also mail me. material…of it

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